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Mark Glaister, Colin Towey, Owen Jeffries, Daniel Muniz-Pumares, Paul Foley and Gillian McInnes

participants to express their true peak power output (PPO), or a combination of the 2. Indeed, there is evidence that individuals produce a lower PPO during 30-second sprints than 10-second sprints, most likely due to subconscious pacing strategies. 12 Moreover, the torque factor which produces the highest

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Mathias T. Vangsoe, Jonas K. Nielsen and Carl D. Paton

Measures At the first visit, participants performed a 10-minute self-selected cycling-based warm-up before conducting a 6-second maximal effort sprint test on a wind-braked cycle ergometer (Wattbike Pro Ltd, Nottingham, United Kingdom) to determine peak power output (PPO) and ensure that participants met

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Nattai R. Borges, Aaron T. Scanlan, Peter R. Reaburn and Thomas M. Doering

(kilometers per week) and aerobic cycling performance (maximal oxygen consumption [VO 2 max] and peak power output [PPO]). All subjects were informed about the study and consented to participate, and procedures were approved by the Central Queensland University Human Research Ethics Committee in accordance

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Blaine E. Arney, Reese Glover, Andrea Fusco, Cristina Cortis, Jos J. de Koning, Teun van Erp, Salvador Jaime, Richard P. Mikat, John P. Porcari and Carl Foster

hard for overall intensity. Based on responses during preliminary exercise testing, each interval training session consisted of four 4-minute intervals at 50%, 75%, or 85% of peak power output with a 1-minute interset rest period at 25 W. In addition to the 4 intervals, an incremental 5-minute warm

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Arthur H. Bossi, Wouter P. Timmerman and James G. Hopker

(age 33 [10] y; height 178 [11] cm; body mass 76.0 [15.1] kg; maximal oxygen uptake 51.4 [5.1] mL·kg −1 ·min −1 ; peak power output 4.69 [0.45] W·kg −1 ) participated in this study after providing written informed consent. The University of Kent ethics committee approved the study in compliance with

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Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi and Ermanno Rampinini

followed by a fast upward movement with the aim to jump as high as possible. During the concentric phase of each CMJ, absolute peak power output (PPO abs ), absolute peak force (PF abs ), and jump height were measured. Furthermore, PPO abs and PF abs were normalized to each athlete’s body mass (PPO rel

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José L. Areta

these circuits. Standard laboratory testing ( Hawley & Noakes, 1992 ) determined 300 W and 5.39 W/kg of absolute and relative aerobic peak power output respectively, and 3.54 L/min and 63.6 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 of absolute and relative V ˙ O 2 max respectively in June 2014. The athlete read the case

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Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly

increases of both mean and peak power output in the first 3 sprints by 2% to 4% during the early stages of repeated-sprint cycling. They suggested that ischemic preconditioning may have potentiated performance by improving muscle force production following that as it has previously be shown. 25 While

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Alannah K.A. McKay, Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim, Rebecca Cross and Jason Siegler

-intensity cycling to failure in recreationally active individuals. Subsequently, study B examined the performance effect of PR lotion on mean and peak power output (PPO) during a predetermined series of repeated Wingate performance tasks in moderately trained athletes. Methods Participants This study was conducted

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David N. Borg, Ian B. Stewart, John O. Osborne, Christopher Drovandi, Joseph T. Costello, Jamie Stanley and Geoffrey M. Minett

as performance level-2 cyclists (1−5 performance-level classification scale, where 5 indicates highly trained cyclists) according to the mean peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 peak ) and peak power output (PPO), 16 provided informed written consent to participate in the study. All participants had