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2010 32 2 193 216 10.1123/jsep.32.2.193 Detaching Reasons From Aims: Fair Play and Well-Being in Soccer as a Function of Pursuing Performance-Approach Goals for Autonomous or Controlling Reasons Maarten Vansteenkiste * Athanasios Mouratidis * Willy Lens * 4 2010 32 2 217 242 10.1123/jsep.32

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Sarah Danthony, Nicolas Mascret and François Cury

performance trajectory), performance-approach goals (i.e., doing well relative to others), mastery-avoidance goals (i.e., not doing poorly relative to the task demands or one’s own performance trajectory), performance-avoidance goals (i.e., not doing poorly relative to others), and general test anxiety

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Jian Wang, Bo Shen, Xiaobin Luo, Qingshan Hu and Alex C. Garn

are not a negative predictor of subjective well-being in collectivistic countries ( Elliot et al., 2001 ). Further research is needed to investigate teachers’ avoidance goals for teaching physical education. It is important to point out that those with high performance-approach goals for teaching also

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, performance approach goals showed stronger associations with performance, satisfaction, and positive affect. These findings support the idea that both the aim (i.e., goal) and reason (i.e., motivation) of goal-directed action matters in sport for performance and well-being. When studying the correlates of

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Ken R. Lodewyk

performance-approach goals and neuroticism and agreeableness (inversely). These studies infer that that being more conscientious —that is, those who set clear goals and regulate their time and learning to better overcome challenges to improved learning—may be more likely to develop both learning and

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Daniel M. Smith and Sarah E. Martiny

). Motivation In addition to the model developed by Schmader et al. ( 2008 ), different motivational approaches of explaining the processes underlying ST have been presented. These motivational approaches suggest that whereas some people are motivated by a desire to outperform others (performance-approach goal

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Athanasios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Milosis and Christos Gotzaridis

classrooms ( Guthrie et al., 2000 ). In line with suggestions from sport motivation researchers ( Papaioannou et al., 2012 ), autonomous motivation emerged and developed gradually as a result of the program. These authors argued that, in authentic situations, unlike performance approach goals ( Elliot, 2006

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Margaret E. Whitehead, Elizabeth J. Durden-Myers and Niek Pot

, whereas avoidance goals (i.e., mastery-avoidance goals, performance-avoidance goals) often lead to negative results. However, performance-oriented goals (i.e., ego goals, performance-approach goals, performance-avoidance goals) can sometimes bring about positive effects on student learning outcomes, but

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Raul Reina, Yeshayahu Hutzler, María C. Iniguez-Santiago and Juan A. Moreno-Murcia

, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals; and negatively associated with a mastery climate. Authors of other studies about attitudes toward inclusion in PE looked at competitiveness, which can be attributed to ability beliefs, without using a tool validated in a theoretical framework

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Sofie Morbée, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Nathalie Aelterman and Leen Haerens

-being . Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 34, 481 – 502 . PubMed ID: 22889690 doi:10.1123/jsep.34.4.481 10.1123/jsep.34.4.481 Vansteenkiste , M. , Mouratidis , A. , & Lens , W. ( 2010 ). Detaching reasons from aims: Fair play and well-being in soccer as a function of pursuing performance-approach