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Francis M. Kozub

The purpose was to study expectations, persistence, and posttask attributions in 33 children (ages 9 to 15 years) with mental retardation (MR) and 40 children (ages 10 to 13 years) without disabilities during integrated physical education classes. Each of the participants (34 male and 39 females) viewed a video of another child successfully completing a game, responded to a question about expectations, and engaged in this same game alongside a peer. Results indicated that expectations did not differ between children with and without MR, χ2(1) = .35, p > .05. Following each child’s request to stop playing, a video of individual performance was displayed and an interview was conducted to determine posttask attributions. Learners with MR were less persistent than peers without disabilities, F(1, 68) = 4.60, p < .5, η2 = .06. Although less persistent, children with MR did not differ on posttask attributions from peers without disabilities, χ2(2) = 3.64, p > .05; χ2(2) = 1.74, p > .05.

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Moira E. Stuart and Diane E. Whaley

Achievement choices emanate from a variety of individual and contextual factors, including the influence of significant others and gender-role socialization. An understanding of these factors is important for promoting participation in sport, particularly for women engaged in masculine-typed sports. Five members of the USA women’s wrestling team were interviewed regarding the personal and contextual variables that influenced their choice to wrestle. Questions focused on the athletes’ expectations of success and value for wrestling, their identity as a wrestler, the role of significant others, and the cultural context of wrestling for women. Results revealed that each woman had a strong wrestling identity, had high perceptions of ability, and placed high value on achieving in wrestling. Parents and coaches were the main providers of wrestling opportunities; however, negative interpretations of their involvement from a variety of significant others outnumbered positive influences. While the individual factors confirm sources that would lead a person to select and persist at an achievement task, societal messages did not support these choices. Discussion centers on issues of resistance, persistence, and applied messages.

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, William A. Pitney and Ashley Goodman

Edited by Jatin Ambegaonkar


Retention factors for athletic trainers (ATs) generally include autonomy, work-life balance, and job satisfaction, but little is known specifically about the position of Head AT.


To investigate factors that influence retention of the Head AT in a leadership role.


A qualitative study that employed structured interviews.

Patients or Other Participants:

18 Head ATs (13 males, 5 females; 44 ± 8 years of age; 22 ± 7 years of experience in the role) participated.

Data Collection and Analysis:

Participants responded to a series of questions presented through an online interview. The data were analyzed through a general inductive approach.


Two key retention factors that were identified by the analysis were enjoyment of the work setting and professional motivation.


Head ATs remain in their positions due to rewarding relationships with staff members and student-athletes. A commitment to lifelong learning for professional development also exerts a positive influence for retention.

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Sarah A. Doolittle, Patt Dodds and Judith H. Placek

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Christianne M. Eason, Rhyan A. Lazar and James M. Mensch

We examined factors that have contributed to career longevity in the profession of athletic training in the NCAA Division I setting. Longevity is an important topic for athletic trainers, as many depart the setting for various reasons, and viability of a lifelong career is often questioned. Fourteen (11 males and 3 females) athletic trainers who have worked in NCAA Division I athletics for 15 years or more volunteered to participate in this study and completed one-on-one phone interviews. An inductive analysis was completed. Data saturation was reached with our sample, and we completed member checks and multiple analyst triangulation. Our results showed having a passion for the role and job, having an acceptance of the athletics lifestyle, having a support network, and having family and work integration were the major reasons our participants have been able to persist as an athletic trainer within the NCAA Division I setting.

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Hannah Cooper and Stacy Winter

Disordered eating is a psychological ailment that befalls many athletes and can persist into retirement. Links have been established between disordered eating and societal and sport-specific pressures; however, little research has focused on the perspective of retired athletes in a time-based sport. The purpose of the current research was to explore the conceptualization of disordered eating in relation to swimming participation, how retirement affects eating patterns, and ways to mitigate disordered eating. Following IPA methodological guidelines, a homogeneous sample of retired swimmers (N = 6) was chosen for semistructured, participant-driven interviews determined by scores on a disordered-eating questionnaire. Three superordinate themes were revealed: (1) pressures unique to swimming, (2) transition to eating pattern awareness, and (3) maintaining ideal eating patterns in retirement. The results revealed a combination of novel findings and expansion of previous data on disordered eating. Suggestions for applications of current findings and for future research are also discussed.

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Chris Harwood and Lew Hardy

In their response to our recent paper (Harwood, Hardy, & Swain, 2000), Treasure et al. (2001) claimed to have clarified our misconceptions and misrepresentations of achievement goal research. After first of all commenting on the apparently rather emotive nature of their response, we logically deal with each of their criticisms. Specifically, we present sound theoretical arguments to show that: (a) personal theories of achievement hold primacy over achievement goals; (b) we are not “particularly confused” (or even a little confused) in our understanding of conceptions of ability; (c) there are excellent reasons for examining the possibility of a tripartite approach to goal orientation and goal involvement; and (d) the issue of measurement in achievement goal research needs to be carefully reconsidered. Further, in response to the status quo offered by Treasure and colleagues, we call for more innovative research that will help progress the impact of achievement goal theory in competitive sport.

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Philip W. Fink, Sarah P. Shultz, Eva D’Hondt, Matthieu Lenoir and Andrew P. Hills

more traditional methods of analysis (e.g., COP displacement) might miss ( Ihlen, Skjæret, & Vereijken, 2013 ; Norris, Marsh, Smith, Kohut, & Miller, 2005 ). Fractal processes contain long range correlations in the time series and can show either persistence (i.e., a positive correlation in time or a