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Seigo Mitsutake, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Shiho Amagasa, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Noritoshi Fukushima, Shigeru Inoue and Koichiro Oka

, greater time spent in total SBs results in poorer cognitive and physical function performance, which is independent of engaging in physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity. 6 – 9 Sedentary behaviors occur on a daily basis within different domains, including work, transport use, and leisure time

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Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger

and/or physical function. The importance of this research is that it examines the relationship of meeting criterion-based physical activity recommendations by both self-report and accelerometry, and it includes self-reported HRQOL using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System

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Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui and Sara C. Folta

For adults aged 65 years and older, physical function is a strong predictor of subsequent disability and loss of independence ( Hirvensalo, Rantanen, & Heikkinen, 2000 ; Newman et al., 2006 ). Older adults with mobility disability have higher rates of hospitalization, depression, morbidity, and

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Diane Austrin Klein, William J. Stone, Wayne T. Phillips, Jaime Gangi and Sarah Hartman

The impact of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on physical function in assisted-living older adults (73-94 years old) was studied. A 5-week pretraining period consisting of weekly visits by trainers to participants preceded a 10-week training period of warm-up, PNF exercises, and cool-down. Training progressed from 1 set of 3 repetitions to 3 sets of 3 repetitions. Assessments were conducted at baseline (T1), postpretraining (T2), and posttraining (T3). Eleven of 14 volunteer participants completed the study. Physical function was assessed by range of motion (ROM), isometric strength, and balance and mobility measures. Repeated-measures ANOVA identified 6 measures (sit-to-stand, shoulder- and ankle-flexion ROM, and hip-extension, ankle-flexion, and ankle-extension strength) with statistically significant differences. With the exception of hip-extension strength, these measures were statistically significant from T2 to T3 in post hoc univariate tests. Results indicate that PNF flexibility training can improve ROM, isometric strength, and selected physical-function tasks in assisted-living older adults.

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Cheryl Der Ananian, Renae Smith-Ray, Brad Meacham, Amy Shah and Susan Hughes

, & Castro, 2017 ; Resnicow, Baranowski, Ahluwalia, & Braithwaite, 1999 ). Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the management of arthritis ( Bennell, Dobson, & Hinman, 2014 ; Brosseau et al., 2015 ; Hochberg et al., 2012 ). Regular exercise is known to decrease pain, improve physical function, and may

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Claire Peel, Carolyn Utsey and Jan MacGregor

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an 8-week supervised exercise program on physiological measurements during treadmill walking, muscle strength, functional performance, and health status in older adults limited in physical function. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, N = 13) or a control group (CG, N = 11), and were evaluated before and after the exercise program (EG) or 8-week period (CG). Evaluations included a progressive treadmill lest, strength testing, the Physical Performance Test (PPT), and the SF-36 Health Survey. The exercise program consisted of 3 sessions per week of brisk walking and strengthening exercises. The EG demonstrated increases in cardiorespiratory fitness and increases in treadmill walking time. The EG also demonstrated increases in force production in 3 of the 6 muscle groups that were tested. Both the EG and CG demonstrated improvements in PPT scores and in 2 health concepts on the SF-36 Health Survey.

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Andrew A. Pellett, Leann Myers, Michael Welsch, S. Michal Jazwinski and David A. Welsh

Diastolic dysfunction, often seen with increasing age, is associated with reduced exercise capacity and increased mortality. Mortality rates in older individuals are linked to the development of disability, which may be preceded by functional limitations. The goal of this study was to identify which echocardiographic measures of diastolic function correlate with physical function in older subjects. A total of 36 men and women from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study, age 62–101 yr, received a complete echocardiographic exam and performed the 10-item continuous-scale physical-functional performance test (CS-PFP-10). After adjustment for age and gender, left atrial volume index (ρ = –0.59; p = .0005) correlated with the total CS-PFP-10 score. Increased left atrial volume index may be a marker of impaired performance of activities of daily living in older individuals.

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George J. Holland, Kiyoji Tanaka, Ryosuke Shigematsu and Masaki Nakagaichi

This review examines the influences of physiological aging processes on connective tissue, joint integrity, flexibility (range of motion [ROM]), and physical functions of older adults. Studies that attempted to improve older adults' ROM are also critiqued. Multiple mechanisms of musculoskeletal and soft-tissue degeneration, as well as disease processes (osteoporosis, arthritis, atherosclerosis), contribute to significant decreases in neuromuscular function and ROM in older adults, all of which can be exacerbated by disuse influences. No delineation of disuse effects on the rate of aging-related decrements in ROM can be provided, however, because long-term investigations (with physical activity controls) have not been conducted. Research efforts have documented both upper and lower extremity decrements in ROM with development of physical impairments, reductions in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and progression of disability. There is limited research evidence that either specialized stretch-training or general-exercise intervention protocols moderately improve ROM in older adults and the frail elderly.

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Marcia G. Ory, Matthew Lee Smith, Luohua Jiang, Doris Howell, Shuai Chen, Jairus C. Pulczinski and Alan B. Stevens

This study examines the effectiveness of Texercise Select, a 12-week lifestyle program to improve physical functioning (as measured by gait speed) and quality of life. Baseline and 12-week follow-up assessments were collected from 220 enrollees who were older (mean = 75 years), predominantly female (85%), White (82%), and experiencing multiple comorbidities (mean = 2.4). Linear mixed-models were fitted for continuous outcome variables and GEE models with logit link function for binary outcome variables. At baseline, over 52% of participants had Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test times of 12 s or more, which indicates below-normal performance. On average, participants showed significant reductions in TUG test scores at the postintervention (11% reduction, p < .001). Participants also showed significant improvements in general health status (p = .002), unhealthy physical days (p = .032), combined unhealthy physical and mental days (p = .006), and days limited from usual activity (p = .045). Findings suggest that performance indicators can be objectively collected and integrated into evaluation designs of community-based, activity-rich lifestyle programs.

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Christopher J. Dondzila, Keith P. Gennuso, Ann M. Swartz, Sergey Tarima, Elizabeth K. Lenz, Stephanie S. Stein, Randal J. Kohl and Scott J. Strath

The aim of this study was to examine the dose-response relationship between walking activity and physical function (PF) in community-dwelling older adults. Physical activity (PA, pedometry) and PF (self-report [SF-36] and 6-minute walk test [6MWT]) were assessed in 836 individuals. Accumulated PA was categorized into four groups (1 = ≤ 2,500; 2 = 2,501–5,000; 3 = 5,001–7,500; and 4 = ≥ 7,501 steps/day). Across individual groups 1–4, SF-36 scores increased from 66.9 ± 25.0% to 73.5 ± 23.2% to 78.8 ± 19.7% to 81.3 ± 20.6%, and 6MWT increased from 941.7 ± 265.4 ft to 1,154.1 ± 248.2 ft to 1,260.1 ± 226.3 ft to 1,294.0 ± 257.9 ft. Both SF-36 and 6MWT scores were statistically different across all groups, apart from groups 3 and 4. PA and ranks of groups were highly significant predictors (p < .0001) for both SF-36 and 6MWT. There was a positive dose-response relationship evident for both SF-36 and 6MWT with increasing levels of PA. Low levels of PA appear to be an important indicator of poor functionality in older adults.