emphasis on lifestyle strategies for the prevention of and therapy for dementia. PWD who take up a variety of exercise programs have better physical function, functional independence, quality of life, and cognitive function compared with those who remain inactive ( Forbes, Thiessen, Blake, Forbes, & Forbes
Kayla Regan, Felicia White, David Harvey and Laura E. Middleton
Seigo Mitsutake, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Shiho Amagasa, Hiroyuki Kikuchi, Noritoshi Fukushima, Shigeru Inoue and Koichiro Oka
, greater time spent in total SBs results in poorer cognitive and physical function performance, which is independent of engaging in physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity. 6 – 9 Sedentary behaviors occur on a daily basis within different domains, including work, transport use, and leisure time
Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger
and/or physical function. The importance of this research is that it examines the relationship of meeting criterion-based physical activity recommendations by both self-report and accelerometry, and it includes self-reported HRQOL using the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System
Anna Gabriela Silva Vilela Ribeiro, Rozangela Verlengia, Maria Rita Marques de Oliveira, Matheus Valério Almeida Oliveira, Idico Luiz Pellegrinotti and Alex Harley Crisp
benefits ( Jakicic et al., 2019 ). However, only one study included in the review investigated older adults ( Jefferis et al., 2016 ), and there is no evidence of the influence of MVPA accumulated in bouts and nonbouts on directly-measured physical function and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (aSMM [an
Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui and Sara C. Folta
For adults aged 65 years and older, physical function is a strong predictor of subsequent disability and loss of independence ( Hirvensalo, Rantanen, & Heikkinen, 2000 ; Newman et al., 2006 ). Older adults with mobility disability have higher rates of hospitalization, depression, morbidity, and
Diane Austrin Klein, William J. Stone, Wayne T. Phillips, Jaime Gangi and Sarah Hartman
The impact of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on physical function in assisted-living older adults (73-94 years old) was studied. A 5-week pretraining period consisting of weekly visits by trainers to participants preceded a 10-week training period of warm-up, PNF exercises, and cool-down. Training progressed from 1 set of 3 repetitions to 3 sets of 3 repetitions. Assessments were conducted at baseline (T1), postpretraining (T2), and posttraining (T3). Eleven of 14 volunteer participants completed the study. Physical function was assessed by range of motion (ROM), isometric strength, and balance and mobility measures. Repeated-measures ANOVA identified 6 measures (sit-to-stand, shoulder- and ankle-flexion ROM, and hip-extension, ankle-flexion, and ankle-extension strength) with statistically significant differences. With the exception of hip-extension strength, these measures were statistically significant from T2 to T3 in post hoc univariate tests. Results indicate that PNF flexibility training can improve ROM, isometric strength, and selected physical-function tasks in assisted-living older adults.
Cheryl Der Ananian, Renae Smith-Ray, Brad Meacham, Amy Shah and Susan Hughes
, & Castro, 2017 ; Resnicow, Baranowski, Ahluwalia, & Braithwaite, 1999 ). Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the management of arthritis ( Bennell, Dobson, & Hinman, 2014 ; Brosseau et al., 2015 ; Hochberg et al., 2012 ). Regular exercise is known to decrease pain, improve physical function, and may
Andrew A. Pellett, Leann Myers, Michael Welsch, S. Michal Jazwinski and David A. Welsh
Diastolic dysfunction, often seen with increasing age, is associated with reduced exercise capacity and increased mortality. Mortality rates in older individuals are linked to the development of disability, which may be preceded by functional limitations. The goal of this study was to identify which echocardiographic measures of diastolic function correlate with physical function in older subjects. A total of 36 men and women from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study, age 62–101 yr, received a complete echocardiographic exam and performed the 10-item continuous-scale physical-functional performance test (CS-PFP-10). After adjustment for age and gender, left atrial volume index (ρ = –0.59; p = .0005) correlated with the total CS-PFP-10 score. Increased left atrial volume index may be a marker of impaired performance of activities of daily living in older individuals.
Claire Peel, Carolyn Utsey and Jan MacGregor
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an 8-week supervised exercise program on physiological measurements during treadmill walking, muscle strength, functional performance, and health status in older adults limited in physical function. Twenty-four participants were randomly assigned to an exercise group (EG, N = 13) or a control group (CG, N = 11), and were evaluated before and after the exercise program (EG) or 8-week period (CG). Evaluations included a progressive treadmill lest, strength testing, the Physical Performance Test (PPT), and the SF-36 Health Survey. The exercise program consisted of 3 sessions per week of brisk walking and strengthening exercises. The EG demonstrated increases in cardiorespiratory fitness and increases in treadmill walking time. The EG also demonstrated increases in force production in 3 of the 6 muscle groups that were tested. Both the EG and CG demonstrated improvements in PPT scores and in 2 health concepts on the SF-36 Health Survey.
George J. Holland, Kiyoji Tanaka, Ryosuke Shigematsu and Masaki Nakagaichi
This review examines the influences of physiological aging processes on connective tissue, joint integrity, flexibility (range of motion [ROM]), and physical functions of older adults. Studies that attempted to improve older adults' ROM are also critiqued. Multiple mechanisms of musculoskeletal and soft-tissue degeneration, as well as disease processes (osteoporosis, arthritis, atherosclerosis), contribute to significant decreases in neuromuscular function and ROM in older adults, all of which can be exacerbated by disuse influences. No delineation of disuse effects on the rate of aging-related decrements in ROM can be provided, however, because long-term investigations (with physical activity controls) have not been conducted. Research efforts have documented both upper and lower extremity decrements in ROM with development of physical impairments, reductions in basic and instrumental activities of daily living, and progression of disability. There is limited research evidence that either specialized stretch-training or general-exercise intervention protocols moderately improve ROM in older adults and the frail elderly.