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Brendan R. Scott, Robert G. Lockie, Timothy J. Knight, Andrew C. Clark and Xanne A.K. Janse de Jonge


To compare various measures of training load (TL) derived from physiological (heart rate [HR]), perceptual (rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), and physical (global positioning system [GPS] and accelerometer) data during in-season field-based training for professional soccer.


Fifteen professional male soccer players (age 24.9 ± 5.4 y, body mass 77.6 ± 7.5 kg, height 181.1 ± 6.9 cm) were assessed in-season across 97 individual training sessions. Measures of external TL (total distance [TD], the volume of low-speed activity [LSA; <14.4 km/h], high-speed running [HSR; >14.4 km/h], very high-speed running [VHSR; >19.8 km/h], and player load), HR and session-RPE (sRPE) scores were recorded. Internal TL scores (HR-based and sRPE-based) were calculated, and their relationships with measures of external TL were quantified using Pearson product–moment correlations.


Physical measures of TD, LSA volume, and player load provided large, significant (r = .71−.84; P < .01) correlations with the HR-based and sRPE-based methods. Volume of HSR and VHSR provided moderate to large, significant (r = .40−.67; P < .01) correlations with measures of internal TL.


While the volume of HSR and VHSR provided significant relationships with internal TL, physical-performance measures of TD, LSA volume, and player load appear to be more acceptable indicators of external TL, due to the greater magnitude of their correlations with measures of internal TL.

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Angela Tate, Shana Harrington, Melissa Buness, Susan Murray, Caitlin Trout and Corinne Meisel


Youth- through masters-level competitive swimmers incur significant shoulder pain. Risk factors associated with shoulder pain include high swimming yardage, a lack of cross-training, decreased shoulder strength and reduced core endurance, and limited posterior shoulder and pectoral length. Since training, swimming exposure, and physical-performance measures have all been associated with shoulder pain, the methods used to train swimmers may influence the development of shoulder pain, yet studies delineating training methods are lacking.


To identify in-water and dry-land practices among youth- through masters-level swimmers in the United States (US) and describe the potential effects of training practices on swimmers’ shoulders.


A Web-based survey was developed to identify common training practices in 5 areas: quantification of swimming and dry-land training and in-water techniques such as kicking drills, upper-body stretching, shoulder and core strengthening, and cross-training.


156 swim-team coaches or captains of youth, high school, and college swim teams and 196 masters swimmers participated (N = 352). There was geographic representation from across the US.


Responses indicated diverse training practices. However, most respondents used kicking drills, which may provoke shoulder pain due to prolonged poor positioning. High yardage swum by high school and college teams increases their risk of shoulder tendinopathy. Stretching and strengthening exercises and dosages commonly used were inconsistent with current research recommendations and lacked specificity in terms of addressing typical mobility restrictions and muscle weaknesses described in the swimming literature. Core strengthening and cross-training are frequently performed.


Several areas of in-water and dry-land practice were identified that may put swimmers’ shoulders at risk for injury. Further research regarding the safety and efficacy of training programs is recommended to determine optimal methods of injury prevention and performance enhancement.

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Lee Taylor, Christopher J. Stevens, Heidi R. Thornton, Nick Poulos and Bryna C.R. Chrismas

Purpose: To determine how a cooling vest worn during a warm-up could influence selected performance (countermovement jump [CMJ]), physical (global positioning system [GPS] metrics), and psychophysiological (body temperature and perceptual) variables. Methods : In a randomized, crossover design, 12 elite male World Rugby Sevens Series athletes completed an outdoor (wet bulb globe temperature 23–27°C) match-specific externally valid 30-min warm-up wearing a phase-change cooling vest (VEST) and without (CONTROL), on separate occasions 7 d apart. CMJ was assessed before and after the warm-up, with GPS indices and heart rate monitored during the warm-ups, while core temperature (T c; ingestible telemetric pill; n = 6) was recorded throughout the experimental period. Measures of thermal sensation (TS) and thermal comfort (TC) was obtained pre-warm-up and post-warm-up, with rating of perceived exertion (RPE) taken post-warm-ups. Results: Athletes in VEST had a lower ΔT c (mean [SD]: VEST = 1.3°C [0.1°C]; CONTROL = 2.0°C [0.2°C]) from pre-warm-up to post-warm-up (effect size; ±90% confidence limit: −1.54; ±0.62) and T c peak (mean [SD]: VEST = 37.8°C [0.3°C]; CONTROL = 38.5°C [0.3°C]) at the end of the warm-up (−1.59; ±0.64) compared with CONTROL. Athletes in VEST demonstrated a decrease in ΔTS (−1.59; ±0.72) and ΔTC (−1.63; ±0.73) pre-warm-up to post-warm-up, with a lower RPE post-warm-up (−1.01; ±0.46) than CONTROL. Changes in CMJ and GPS indices were trivial between conditions (effect size < 0.2). Conclusions: Wearing the vest prior to and during a warm-up can elicit favorable alterations in physiological (T c) and perceptual (TS, TC, and RPE) warm-up responses, without compromising the utilized warm-up characteristics or physical-performance measures.

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, and Osteoarthritic Pain in Older Adults Marijke Hopman-Rock * Floris W. Kraaimaat * Johannes W.J. Bijlsma * 10 1996 4 4 324 337 10.1123/japa.4.4.324 Physical Performance Measures for Characterizing High Functioning Older Persons Takashi Kinugasa * Hiroshi Nagasaki * Taketo Furuna * Hajime

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Original Research Validation of Questionnaire-Assessed Physical Activity in Comparison With Objective Measures Using Accelerometers and Physical Performance Measures Among Community-Dwelling Adults Aged ≥85 Years in Tokyo, Japan Yuko Oguma * Yusuke Osawa * Michiyo Takayama * Yukiko Abe

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Aaron D. Sciascia, Arthur J. Nitz, Patrick O. McKeon, Jennifer Havens and Timothy L. Uhl

Patient-reported outcome measures (PROs) and physical performance measures allow clinicians to obtain both a patient’s perspective and a demonstrable assessment regarding their ability to perform activities in the context of disability, dysfunction, or impairment. 1 , 2 Taken individually, each

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Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger

also examines physical performance measures (400-m walk and timed chair stands) that are objective indicators of physical function. The research targets an understudied population of rural Midwestern women who have documented health disparities, and who are considered a designated priority population

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Christine E. Roberts, Louise H. Phillips, Clare L. Cooper, Stuart Gray and Julia L. Allan

out ADLs in older adults. Given that physical performance measures are more likely to be sensitive to change over time ( Goldman, Glei, Rosero-Bixby, Chiou, & Weinstein, 2014 ), self-reported and physical performance measures were analyzed separately. Method Study Design This study was a systematic

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen

groups are highlighted in bold. Linear regression was utilized for studying the associations of SR-PA scales and ACC-LTPA variables with physical performance measures. The associations were studied using univariate models separately for each physical activity variable as independent variable and with

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Jorg Teichmann, Edin K. Suwarganda, C. Martyn Beaven, Kim Hébert-Losier, Jin Wei Lee, Florencio Tenllado Vallejo, Philip Chun Foong Lew, Ramlan Abdul Aziz, Yeo Wee Kian and Dietmar Schmidtbleicher

enhance physical performance measures in a cohort of uninjured elite female field hockey athletes. Methods Participants Participants were 21 female field hockey athletes (age: 23.1 ± 4.1 y) who were currently participating in training with the Malaysian senior national squad and preparing for a major