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Damir Zubac, Drazen Cular and Uros Marusic

combat athletes on the basis of the 79% common variance with U OSM . Likewise, another study found U SG to be a superior dehydration index to track for low-level whole-body fluid deficit (eg, 1–3%) compared with plasma osmolality in well-trained athletes. 10 Alternatively, a recent study established

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Stephanie K. Gaskell, Rhiannon M.J. Snipe and Ricardo J.S. Costa

intake was restricted during exercise, resulting in 3.2 ± 0.4% and 3.1 ± 0.7% body mass loss, 307 ± 6 and 306 ± 11 mOsmol/kg postexercise plasma osmolality, respectively. Exercise Protocol 2: Exertional-Heat Stress Participants completed a 2-hr (initiated at 0900 h) running exercise on a motorized

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Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson

and fluid consumption results in stable body mass ( Campagnolo et al., 2017 ) but may be linked with consistent, albeit elevated Usg values. It is possible that Usg 1.020–1.028 is biologically normal and not indicative of hypohydration for these players since plasma osmolality can be similar across a

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Andreas M. Kasper, Ben Crighton, Carl Langan-Evans, Philip Riley, Asheesh Sharma, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

response (e.g., threefold increases in plasma cortisol to approximately 1,500 nmol/L, see Figure  3b ) and is evidenced by the elevations in serum proteins (see Figure  4d ), plasma osmolality (see Figure  4h ), and sodium concentration to 148 mmol/L (see Figure  4g ). This absolute and relative magnitude

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Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez and Stuart D.R. Galloway

of blood volume and plasma osmolality ( Heer et al., 2000 ). Energy content and osmolality of beverages are known to influence the rate of gastric emptying ( Hunt & Stubbs, 1975 ; Vist & Maughan, 1994 , 1995 ). In addition, glucose and electrolyte composition and osmolality affect intestinal water

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.1% body mass loss, 290 and 303 mOsmol·kg −1 plasma osmolality, and −0.9 and −5.8% plasma volume change, respectively). Immediately and 1 h post-exercise participants received water (equating to × 1.5 body mass loss). Venous blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise, and during recovery. Whole

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

indicators: serum sodium, plasma osmolality (P osm ), urine specific gravity (U sg ), urine osmolality (U osm ) Dehydration cut-off: c P osm  < 295 m osm /kg U sg  < 1.020 U osm  < 700–800 m osm /kg Decreased urine volume, dark-yellow urine,  decreased skin turgor, weak, rapid pulse, elevated respiratory