Search Results

You are looking at 11 - 20 of 821 items for :

  • Sport and Exercise Science/Kinesiology x
Clear All
Restricted access

Thomas L. Schmid, Michael Pratt and Lindsay Witmer

Background:

Although policy approaches are traditionally an important element of public health efforts to address major health problems, public health policy around physical activity remains poorly defined and developed.

Methods:

After extensive literature searches and reviews of policy frameworks developed for other public health issues such as tobacco control and injury prevention, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention hosted a series of workshops and discussions on physical activity policy.

Results:

A simple model describing relationships among policy, the environment, behavior, and health was developed, a framework for organizing and conceptualizing policy interventions was described, and priorities for public health efforts to promote physical activity were proposed.

Conclusions:

An expanded focus on physical activity policy interventions is warranted, and such efforts can complement physical activity promotion efforts at other levels. The addition of researchers with expertise in the policy sciences will enhance the work of existing multidisciplinary teams.

Restricted access

Taylor K. Wise

policy specific to atheltes with EDs than a policy intended for the general student body. As a unique subpopulation of people with EDs, athletes likely require diagnostic criteria and treatment that meet their specific needs ( Beals & Manroe, 1994 ). This specialization should come in the form of the

Restricted access

William Bellew, Ben J. Smith, Tracy Nau, Karen Lee, Lindsey Reece and Adrian Bauman

, undertaken at the University of Sydney Prevention Research Collaboration, 14 and with funding from the Australian Government Medical Research Future Fund. 15 Taking a systems approach to physical activity (PA) is important, given that policies and programs in Australia have been largely ineffective over 2

Restricted access

Fiona C. Bull, Karen Milton and Sonja Kahlmeier

Background:

Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for noncommunicable disease worldwide. Increasing physical activity requires large scale actions and relevant, supportive national policy across multiple sectors.

Methods:

The policy audit tool (PAT) was developed to provide a standardized instrument to assess national policy approaches to physical activity. A draft tool, based on earlier work, was developed and pilot-tested in 7 countries.

Results:

After several rounds of revisions, the final PAT comprises 27 items and collects information on 1) government structure, 2) development and content of identified key policies across multiple sectors, 3) the experience of policy implementation at both the national and local level, and 4) a summary of the PAT completion process.

Conclusions:

PAT provides a standardized instrument for assessing progress of national policy on physical activity. Engaging a diverse international group of countries in the development helped ensure PAT has applicability across a wide range of countries and contexts. Experiences from the development of the PAT suggests that undertaking an audit of health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policy can stimulate greater awareness of current policy opportunities and gaps, promote critical debate across sectors, and provide a catalyst for collaboration on policy level actions. The final tool is available online.

Restricted access

Gregory W. Heath and John Bilderback

Recent evidence suggests that policies and environmental approaches that support urban design and land use at the community and street/neighborhood level contributes to physical activity and active living among residents of communities. 1 , 2 However, there is a paucity of studies examining

Restricted access

Michael Mutz and Marlena van Munster

in countries. 16 , 17 Although these factors are important context conditions for exercise and sports participation, governments may also try to influence the sport participation level with policies and measures that explicitly focus on physical activity promotion. To promote sports participation

Restricted access

Cora Lynn Craig

Background:

Low levels of physical activity (PA) and fitness have long been a government concern in Canada; however, more than half of adults are inactive. This article examines factors influencing policy development and implementation using Canadian PA policy as a case study.

Methods:

Current and historical PA policy documents were amassed from a literature review, audit of government and non government websites and from requests to government officials in each jurisdiction directly responsible for PA. These were analyzed to determine policy content, results, barriers, and success factors.

Results:

The national focus for PA policy in Canada has devolved to a multilevel system that meets most established criteria for successful strategies. Earlier PA targets have been met; however, the prevalence of PA decreased from 2005 to 2007. Annual per capita savings in health care associated with achieving the earlier target is estimated at $6.15 per capita, yet a fraction of that is directed to promoting PA.

Conclusion:

Evidenced-based strategies that address multiple policy agendas using sector-specific approaches are needed. Sustained high-level commitment is required; advocacy grounded in metrics and science is needed to increase the profile of the issue and increase the commitments to PA policies in Canada and internationally.

Restricted access

David Kahan and Thomas L. McKenzie

Background:

Physical education (PE) is mandated in most states, but few studies of PE in private schools exist.

Methods:

We assessed selected PE policies and practices in private secondary schools (grades 6 to 12) in California using a 15-item questionnaire related to school characteristics and their PE programs.

Results:

Responding schools (n = 450; response rate, 33.8%) were from 37 counties. Most were coeducational (91.3%) and had a religious affiliation (83%). Secular schools had more PE lessons, weekly PE min, and smaller class sizes. Most schools met guidelines for class size, but few met national recommendations for weekly PE minutes (13.7%), not permitting substitutions for PE (35.6%), and programs being taught entirely by PE specialists (29.3%).

Conclusions:

Private schools, which serve about 5 million US children and adolescents, may be falling short in providing quality PE. School stakeholders should encourage adoption and implementation of policies and practices that abide by professional guidelines and state statutes.

Restricted access

Richard R. Suminski, W.S.C. Poston and Melissa L. Hyder

Background:

Basic information is needed to develop strategies for promoting physical activity (PA) in small business. This preliminary study described small business policies encouraging PA.

Methods:

Interviews were completed at 98 small businesses (5–100 employees) in 2003. Business policies encouraging PA participation by employees and the public were assessed. Stage of Change was used to describe intentions to develop such policies.

Results:

A total of 53 PA policies (12 employee; 41 public) existed. The most common employee policy was incentives for gym memberships (41.7%). The most popular public policy was sport team sponsorships (60.1%). Most businesses (60.2%) were not thinking about creating a policy for PA while 33.7% had a policy in place (20.4% > 6 months).

Conclusion:

Small businesses have few PA policies and most are not thinking about such policies. Research should determine why this is the case and what approaches could stimulate the development of PA policies.

Full access

Lindsey Cox, Victoria Berends, James F. Sallis, Jessica Marie St. John, Betsy McNeil, Martin Gonzalez and Peggy Agron

Background:

Most youth are not meeting physical activity guidelines, and schools are a key venue for providing physical activity. School districts can provide physical activity opportunities through the adoption, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies. This paper reports results of a 2009 survey of California school governance leaders on the barriers and opportunities to providing school-based physical activity and strategies to promote adoption of evidence-based policies.

Methods:

California school board members (n = 339) completed an 83 item online survey about policy options, perceptions, and barriers to improving physical activity in schools.

Results:

Board members’ highest rated barriers to providing physical activity were budget concerns, limited time in a school day, and competing priorities. The key policy opportunities to increase physical activity were improving the quantity and quality of physical education, integrating physical activity throughout the school day, supporting active transportation to/from school, providing access to physical activity facilities during nonschool hours, and integrating physical activity into before/after school programs.

Conclusions:

Survey findings were used to develop policy resources and trainings for school governance leaders that provide a comprehensive approach to improving physical activity in schools.