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Seiichiro Takei, Kuniaki Hirayama and Junichi Okada

Olympic weight-lifting exercises are among the most powerful movements in sport and are often used by athletes for power enhancement along with other primary power exercises like plyometrics and jump squats. 1 Among weight-lifting exercises, the hang power clean (HPC) is a widely used exercise in

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Jonathon Weakley, Carlos Ramirez-Lopez, Shaun McLaren, Nick Dalton-Barron, Dan Weaving, Ben Jones, Kevin Till and Harry Banyard

%) have been demonstrated to promote greater hypertrophic adaptations due to the increased training volume that can be achieved prior to set termination. 4 Alternatively, smaller thresholds (eg, 10% vs 30%) encourage greater development of strength and power due to reduced neuromuscular fatigue and

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Jake Schuster, Dan Howells, Julien Robineau, Anthony Couderc, Alex Natera, Nick Lumley, Tim J. Gabbett and Nick Winkelman

allow for effective development and application of running skills and capacities, strength and power, injury prevention, aerobic and anaerobic conditioning, and tactical/technical components. The primary responsibility of physical-preparation programs is to ensure that players spend as much time as

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Matthew A. Wyon, Roger Wolman, Nicolas Kolokythas, Karen Sheriff, Shaun Galloway and Adam Mattiussi

48%). 6 Low serum 25(OH)D has been linked to reduced muscle strength and power which are fundamental to athletic performance 6 , 7 ; this has further been associated with an increased incidence of injury. 8 , 9 Vitamin D supplementation has become recommended practice in a number of sports including

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

multiple track events, including sprints, hurdles, and middle-distance events. Unlike track events, which rely on a single timed race to determine outcomes, field event athletes must translate speed (forward or rotational) and power into the farthest or highest jump or throw, with the best outcome over

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Jonathon Weakley, Kevin Till, John Sampson, Harry Banyard, Cedric Leduc, Kyle Wilson, Greg Roe and Ben Jones

power. 4 Strength and conditioning programs are developed by manipulating numerous acute variables (eg, load, volume of sets and repetitions, exercise type, repetition velocity), which alter the physiological stimulus and subsequent adaptation. 5 Although practitioners and researchers often focus on

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Robert MacKenzie, Linda Monaghan, Robert A. Masson, Alice K. Werner, Tansinee S. Caprez, Lynsey Johnston and Ole J. Kemi

. Accordingly, changes to those affect maximal climbing performance. Previous studies have identified many of those characteristics, such as upper-body and shoulder strength 6 – 8 including explosive power, 5 , 6 , 9 forearm grip and finger strength, 5 , 10 – 13 upper-body endurance capacity 10 , 14 and

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Konstantina Katsoulis, Liza Stathokostas and Catherine E. Amara

After age 65 years, muscle power (the product of force and velocity or force per unit time) declines faster than muscle strength (the ability to produce maximal force), with the rate of power loss reported to be 3.5–6% per year compared with strength losses of 0–1.5% per year ( Clark et al., 2013

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Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Belén Feriche, Slobodan Jaric, Paulino Padial and Amador García-Ramos

The force platform is recognized as the ‘gold standard’ for testing vertical jumps. 1 – 3 The force platform estimates the velocity and power of the system center of mass from the directly recorded vertical ground reaction force data using the direct dynamic approach. Due to potential

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Kajetan J. Słomka, Slobodan Jaric, Grzegorz Sobota, Ryszard Litkowycz, Tomasz Skowronek, Marian Rzepko and Grzegorz Juras

& Jaric, 2007 ) but also in routine testing of muscle mechanical capacities ( García-Ramos, Feriche, Pérez-Castilla, Padial, & Jaric, 2017 ; Markovic, Dizdar, Jukic, & Cardinale, 2004 ). A number of studies have assessed the force and power output produced in maximum vertical jumping either through