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Jonatan R. Ruiz, Carmen Fiuza-Luces, Nuria Garatachea and Alejandro Lucia

For centuries, the general consensus has been that vigorous, competitive exercise was harmful and shortened life expectancy. Recent data from prospective cohort studies conducted on marathon runners, professional cyclists, and Olympic athletes indicate, however, that regular intense endurance-exercise training has protective benefits against cardiovascular disease and premature death. There are still important questions to be answered, such as what is the optimal dose, in terms of both duration and intensity of training or competition, beyond which the health benefits of regular exercise stabilize or might even potentially disappear.

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Michael Barker, Ulrich Merz, Minou S. Hertl and Gerhard Heimann

Pulmonary function and exercise performance were evaluated in a cohort of 26 children born prematurely at very low birth weight (VLBW) and compared to healthy term controls (age 8-14 years). Children with a history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) had slightly lower lung resting function than those without BPD or controls. Oxygen uptake kinetics in the aerobic range were similar in all three groups. With incremental exercise, however, preterm children with and without BPD demonstrated ventilatory limitation with significantly lower peak work rates. A closer pulmonary follow-up including an exercise test may thus appear warranted after preterm delivery at VLBW.

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Davy Vancampfort, James Mugisha, Marc De Hert, Michel Probst and Brendon Stubbs

Background:

Sedentary behavior is independently associated with an increased risk of poor mental health, developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality. Despite the knowledge that CVD is one of the leading causes of non-AIDS related premature mortality in people living with HIV (PLWH), relatively little attention has been attributed to sedentary behavior in this population. The aims of this meta-analysis were to (a) establish the pooled mean time spent sedentary, (b) investigate predictors of sedentary levels, and (c) explore differences with age- and gender-matched healthy controls.

Methods:

Two independent authors searched major databases until August 2016. A random effects meta-analysis was performed.

Results:

Across 6 unique cross-sectional studies, including 9 sedentary levels, there were 523 (292 men) PLWH (age range = 37 to 58 years). PLWH spent 533 min/day (95% CI = 466 to 599) engaging in sedentary behavior. There was a trend (P = .07) for higher levels of sedentary behavior in self-report measures (551 min, 95% CI = 543 to 560, N = 4) than in objective sedentary behavior time (505 min, 95% CI = 498 to 512, N = 3). The time PLWH spend engaging in sedentary behavior is among the highest levels reported in the literature.

Conclusions:

Given that sedentary behavior is an independent predictor of CVD, future lifestyle interventions specifically targeting the prevention of sedentary behavior in PLWH are warranted.

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Debra J. Rose

The discipline of kinesiology has the potential to make significant contributions to the study of fall-related disability and the advancement of national initiatives aimed at reducing disability in the older adult population. Theoretical frameworks routinely used to guide research across the subdisciplines of kinesiology could and should be applied to the study of fall-related disability and the development of movement-based interventions aimed at improving balance and gait and thereby reducing fall incidence rates and/or injury that contributes to premature morbidity and mortality. Current research findings suggest the need for a stronger focus on the learning or relearning of skilled movement patterns and/or cognitive strategies than currently exists in the falls intervention literature. As a profession, kinesiology is uniquely positioned to play an important role in advancing the goals of the Falls Free© national initiative given the important role that exercise plays in the reduction of fall-related disability and mortality.

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Tonya Nascimento and Gershon Tenenbaum

Exercise-induced vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a respiratory dysfunction where athletes’ vocal cords close prematurely, causing partially or fully obstructed air-flow. Due to a resulting severe decrement in performance and lack of efficacious treatments, this study aimed to discover some of the psychological experiences of athletes with VCD symptoms. Semistructured interviews were conducted with five athletes from three different sports and two mothers of participants. Data were coded for meaningful units and themes by the researcher and one independent rater. Ten psychological facets were derived. Based on the data from these five participants, athletes with VCD may have several common psychological experiences, which may possibly be a result of the breathing disorder. The first seven facets highlight that athletes with VCD may be at risk for burnout. The facets identified are a starting point for sport personnel to plan their treatment and support of athletes in their care.

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Barbara N. Campaigne, Kyle W. Landt, Frederick W. James, Joan Reimar, Wayne Mays and Mark A. Sperling

Systolic time intervals (STI) were measured before and after exercise in 18 diabetic adolescents (D) and 18 age- and sex-matched nondiabetic controls (C). At similar heart rates, pre-exercise pre-ejection period (PEP) and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) were significantly shorter in D compared to C (p<0.05). There was no difference between the two groups in the PEP/LVET ratio. Following exercise there were no differences in STIs between groups. However, the change in PEP and LVET from pre- to postexercise was significantly less in D compared to C (delta PEP 38 vs. 53±3 msec, p<0.01; delta LVET 120 vs. 134±4 msec, p<0.05). These data suggest a hypercontractile state at rest in D and a blunted response to exercise when compared to C. This study provides data that may be relevant to the early identification of individuals at risk for premature diabetic cardiomyopathy.

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Darren J. Burgess and Geraldine A. Naughton

Traditional talent development pathways for adolescents in team sports follow talent identification procedures based on subjective games ratings and isolated athletic assessment. Most talent development models are exclusive rather than inclusive in nature. Subsequently, talent identification may result in discontentment, premature stratification, or dropout from team sports. Understanding the multidimensional differences among the requirements of adolescent and elite adult athletes could provide more realistic goals for potential talented players. Coach education should include adolescent development, and rewards for team success at the adolescent level should reflect the needs of long-term player development. Effective talent development needs to incorporate physical and psychological maturity, the relative age effect, objective measures of game sense, and athletic prowess. The influences of media and culture on the individual, and the competing time demands between various competitions for player training time should be monitored and mediated where appropriate. Despite the complexity, talent development is a worthy investment in professional team sport.

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Stephanie L. Di Stasi, Erin H. Hartigan and Lynn Snyder-Mackler

Aberrant movement strategies are characteristic of ACL-deficient athletes with recurrent knee instability (non-copers), and may instigate premature or accelerate joint degradation. Biomechanical evaluation of kinematic changes over time may elucidate noncopers’ responses to neuromuscular intervention and ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Forty noncopers were randomized into a perturbation group or a strength training only group. We evaluated the effects of perturbation training, and then gender on knee angle and tibial position during a unilateral standing task before and after ACLR. No statistically significant interactions were found. Before surgery, the strength training only group demonstrated knee angle asymmetry, but 6 months after ACLR, both groups presented with similar knee flexion between limbs. Aberrant and asymmetrical tibial position was found only in females following injury and ACLR. Neither treatment group showed distinct unilateral standing strategies following intervention; however, males and female noncopers appear to respond uniquely to physical therapy and surgery.

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Daniel M. Landers

It is maintained that a balance among theory testing, applied research, and dissemination, though an ideal goal for sport psychology, is not being achieved because theory testing has not kept pace. To explain the rise and decline of theory testing in sport psychology a historical perspective was used. Whereas sport psychology from 1950-1965 was characterized by empiricism, from 1966-1976 it was characterized by a social analysis approach used to test single theories with novel tasks in a laboratory setting. In contrast to the earlier approaches, it is recommended that contemporary sport psychologists (a) use more meta-analyses to recheck the conclusions of past reviews, (b) become less reliant on a single research method or setting, (c) avoid premature commitments to a theory, and (d) become less enamored with statistically based null hypothesis testing. A number of suggestions are offered and examples provided to encourage, where appropriate, the use of “strong inference,” a more eclectic employment of research methods and settings as well as statistical techniques to determine the strength of observed relationships.

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Paul D. Loprinzi

Objective:

Examine the association between objectively-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and engagement in self-reported muscle strengthening activities (MSA) with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and in turn, how each of these parameters associate with of all-cause mortality.

Methods:

Data from the 2003–2006 NHANES were employed, with follow-up through December 31, 2011 (N = 5030; 20+ yrs). Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry; MSA was assessed via survey; and ALT and GGT were assessed via a blood sample. Linear regression and Cox proportional hazard models were used.

Results:

MVPA (βadjusted = 0.15; 95% CI: –0.45 to 0.76; P = .60) was not associated with ALT, but MSA was (β adjusted = –0.31; 95% CI: –0.56 to –0.05; P = .02). With regard to GGT, MSA was not significant (β adjusted = –0.12; 95% CI: –0.71 to 0.47; P = .67), nor was MVPA (β adjusted = –1.10; 95% CI: –2.20 to 0.06; P = .06). Higher ALT levels were associated with increased allcause mortality risk (HRadjusted = 1.05; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.06; P < .001).

Conclusion:

Physical activity is favorably associated with markers of hepatic inflammation, and higher levels of markers of hepatic inflammation are associated with increased mortality risk. These findings suggest that physical activity may help protect against premature mortality through its influence on liver pathology.