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Christopher Mesagno, Daryl Marchant and Tony Morris

“Choking under pressure” is a maladaptive response to performance pressure whereby choking models have been identified, yet, theory-matched interventions have not empirically tested. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether a preperformance routine (PPR) could reduce choking effects, based on the distraction model of choking. Three “choking-susceptible”, experienced participants were purposively sampled, from 88 participants, to complete ten-pin bowling deliveries in a single-case A1-B1-A2-B2 design (A phases = “low-pressure”; B phases = “high-pressure”), with an interview following the single-case design. Participants experienced “choking” in the B1 phase, which the interviews indicated was partially due to an increase in self-awareness (S-A). During the B2 phase, improved accuracy occurred when using the personalized PPR and, qualitatively, positive psychological outcomes included reduced S-A and decreased conscious processing. Using the personalized PPR produced adaptive and relevant, task-focused attention.

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5 5 3 3 Applied Research Perceptions of Psychological Momentum and Their Relationship to Performance Steve Miller * Robert Weinberg * 9 1991 5 5 3 3 211 211 222 222 10.1123/tsp.5.3.211 Professional Practice Nebraska’s 3 R’s: One-Play-at-a-Time Preperformance Routine for Collegiate Football

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19 19 4 4 Applied Research Can Beginning Learners Benefit from Preperformance Routines When Serving in Volleyball? Ronnie Lidor * Zohar Mayan * 12 2005 19 19 4 4 343 343 363 363 10.1123/tsp.19.4.343 Professional Practice Self-Determination Theory: A Case Study of Evidence-Based Coaching

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.3.285 Preperformance Routines in Sport: Theoretical Support and Practical Applications Patrick J. Cohn * 9 1990 4 4 3 3 301 301 312 312 10.1123/tsp.4.3.301 Books and Videos Athletes at Risk: Drugs and Sport Charles E. Yesalis * 9 1990 4 4 3 3 313 313 314 314 10.1123/tsp.4.3.313 The Method: A Golf Success Strategy

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Cognitive Component of Elite High Jumpers’ Preperformance Routines Thomas Gretton * Lindsey Blom * Dorice Hankemeier * Lawrence Judge * 30 04 2020 1 06 2020 34 2 99 110 10.1123/tsp.2019-0093 tsp.2019-0093 A Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for College Athletes With Injuries Leslie W. Podlog

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Paul R. Ashbrook, Andrew Gillham and Douglas Barba

, imagery, activation, self-talk, negative thinking Goal setting, negative thinking Goal setting, emotional control, imagery, self-talk, negative thinking Negative thinking Self-stated needs Improve emotional control, negative self-talk, preperformance routines. Improve confidence. Improve confidence and

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Krista Van Slingerland, Natalie Durand-Bush, Poppy DesClouds and Göran Kenttä

maintaining a “playoff beard” are commonplace in sporting culture as ritualistic attempts to control individuals’ sense of efficacy over sporting outcomes. Moreover, it is common practice to repeat drills over and over to strive for perfection. Another example pertains to preperformance routines. World

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Aubrey Newland, Rich Gitelson and W. Eric Legg

Connaughton et al. ( 2008 ) study indicated that the development of mental toughness required mental skills, such as self-talk, focus, preperformance routines, imagery, and goal setting. Because grit and mental toughness share the core notion of perseverance and resilience amid challenges, perhaps the

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Nick Wadsworth

perhaps because of the anxiety I was experiencing, I read a number of journal articles related to gymnasts experiencing mental blocks and the psychological skills that they used to overcome them. Some of the techniques that these athletes were using included imagery, self-talk, and preperformance routines

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Georgia Allen, Claire Thornton and Holly Riby

providing athletes a sense of control over unpredictable situations such as athletic competition ( Brevers, Nils, Dan, & Noël, 2011 ). Superstitious behavior is sometimes displayed during the preperformance routine (PPR) or immediately before competition, making it difficult to differentiate what is