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Christopher Mesagno, Daryl Marchant and Tony Morris

“Choking under pressure” is a maladaptive response to performance pressure whereby choking models have been identified, yet, theory-matched interventions have not empirically tested. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether a preperformance routine (PPR) could reduce choking effects, based on the distraction model of choking. Three “choking-susceptible”, experienced participants were purposively sampled, from 88 participants, to complete ten-pin bowling deliveries in a single-case A1-B1-A2-B2 design (A phases = “low-pressure”; B phases = “high-pressure”), with an interview following the single-case design. Participants experienced “choking” in the B1 phase, which the interviews indicated was partially due to an increase in self-awareness (S-A). During the B2 phase, improved accuracy occurred when using the personalized PPR and, qualitatively, positive psychological outcomes included reduced S-A and decreased conscious processing. Using the personalized PPR produced adaptive and relevant, task-focused attention.

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Paul R. Ashbrook, Andrew Gillham and Douglas Barba

, imagery, activation, self-talk, negative thinking Goal setting, negative thinking Goal setting, emotional control, imagery, self-talk, negative thinking Negative thinking Self-stated needs Improve emotional control, negative self-talk, preperformance routines. Improve confidence. Improve confidence and

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Krista Van Slingerland, Natalie Durand-Bush, Poppy DesClouds and Göran Kenttä

maintaining a “playoff beard” are commonplace in sporting culture as ritualistic attempts to control individuals’ sense of efficacy over sporting outcomes. Moreover, it is common practice to repeat drills over and over to strive for perfection. Another example pertains to preperformance routines. World

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Mike Stoker, Ian Maynard, Joanne Butt, Kate Hays and Paul Hughes

preperformance routines ( Mesagno, Marchant, & Morris, 2008 ), quiet-eye training and analogy learning ( Vine, Moore, Cooke, Ring, & Wilson, 2013 ), and implicit learning ( Hill et al., 2010 ). In addition, stressor-exposure approaches have recently grown in popularity and are proving to be an effective means of

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Nick Wadsworth

perhaps because of the anxiety I was experiencing, I read a number of journal articles related to gymnasts experiencing mental blocks and the psychological skills that they used to overcome them. Some of the techniques that these athletes were using included imagery, self-talk, and preperformance routines

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Georgia Allen, Claire Thornton and Holly Riby

providing athletes a sense of control over unpredictable situations such as athletic competition ( Brevers, Nils, Dan, & Noël, 2011 ). Superstitious behavior is sometimes displayed during the preperformance routine (PPR) or immediately before competition, making it difficult to differentiate what is

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Aubrey Newland, Rich Gitelson and W. Eric Legg

Connaughton et al. ( 2008 ) study indicated that the development of mental toughness required mental skills, such as self-talk, focus, preperformance routines, imagery, and goal setting. Because grit and mental toughness share the core notion of perseverance and resilience amid challenges, perhaps the

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Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle and Jamie Poolton

avoid disrupting their preperformance routine. A mean score for each subscale was calculated for analysis. Jones et al. ( 2005 ) provided psychometric support for the measure’s subscales, with alpha coefficients ranging from .81 to .88 in adult athletes from team and individual sports. Cognitive

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Alex Oliver, Paul J. McCarthy and Lindsey Burns

preperformance routines have an important function for attention in sport, enabling an athlete to deal with distraction (e.g.,  Boutcher & Crews, 1987 ), focus attention (e.g.,  Cotterill, Sanders, & Collins, 2010 ), and act as a trigger ( Boutcher & Crews, 1987 ; Moran, 1996 ). Moreover, research ( Cotterill

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Richard A. Sille, Martin J. Turner and Martin R. Eubank

preperformance routines that help athletes prepare for skill execution. The athletes performing at a consistent high level had excellent strategies for refocusing when faced with distractions. Distraction-control plans have also been successful in golf ( McCaffrey & Orlick, 1989 ) and tennis ( Weinberg, 2006