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Sheldon Hanton, Ross Wadey and Stephen D. Mellalieu

This study examined the use of four advanced psychological strategies (i.e., simulation training, cognitive restructuring, preperformance routines, and overlearning of skills) and subsequent competitive anxiety responses. Semistructured interviews were employed with eight highly elite athletes from a number of team and individual sports. Participants reported using each strategy to enable them to interpret their anxiety-response as facilitative to performance. Only cognitive restructuring and overlearning of skills were perceived by the participants to exert an influence over the intensity of cognitive symptoms experienced. The perceived causal mechanisms responsible for these effects included heightened attentional focus, increased effort and motivation, and perceived control over anxiety-related symptoms. These findings have implications for the practice of sport psychology with athletes debilitated by competitive anxiety in stressful situations.

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5 5 3 3 Applied Research Perceptions of Psychological Momentum and Their Relationship to Performance Steve Miller * Robert Weinberg * 9 1991 5 5 3 3 211 211 222 222 10.1123/tsp.5.3.211 Professional Practice Nebraska’s 3 R’s: One-Play-at-a-Time Preperformance Routine for Collegiate Football

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.3.285 Preperformance Routines in Sport: Theoretical Support and Practical Applications Patrick J. Cohn * 9 1990 4 4 3 3 301 301 312 312 10.1123/tsp.4.3.301 Books and Videos Athletes at Risk: Drugs and Sport Charles E. Yesalis * 9 1990 4 4 3 3 313 313 314 314 10.1123/tsp.4.3.313 The Method: A Golf Success Strategy

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19 19 4 4 Applied Research Can Beginning Learners Benefit from Preperformance Routines When Serving in Volleyball? Ronnie Lidor * Zohar Mayan * 12 2005 19 19 4 4 343 343 363 363 10.1123/tsp.19.4.343 Professional Practice Self-Determination Theory: A Case Study of Evidence-Based Coaching

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Cognitive Component of Elite High Jumpers’ Preperformance Routines Thomas Gretton * Lindsey Blom * Dorice Hankemeier * Lawrence Judge * 30 04 2020 1 06 2020 34 2 99 110 10.1123/tsp.2019-0093 tsp.2019-0093 A Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for College Athletes With Injuries Leslie W. Podlog

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Paul R. Ashbrook, Andrew Gillham and Douglas Barba

, imagery, activation, self-talk, negative thinking Goal setting, negative thinking Goal setting, emotional control, imagery, self-talk, negative thinking Negative thinking Self-stated needs Improve emotional control, negative self-talk, preperformance routines. Improve confidence. Improve confidence and

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Krista Van Slingerland, Natalie Durand-Bush, Poppy DesClouds and Göran Kenttä

maintaining a “playoff beard” are commonplace in sporting culture as ritualistic attempts to control individuals’ sense of efficacy over sporting outcomes. Moreover, it is common practice to repeat drills over and over to strive for perfection. Another example pertains to preperformance routines. World

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Aubrey Newland, Rich Gitelson and W. Eric Legg

Connaughton et al. ( 2008 ) study indicated that the development of mental toughness required mental skills, such as self-talk, focus, preperformance routines, imagery, and goal setting. Because grit and mental toughness share the core notion of perseverance and resilience amid challenges, perhaps the

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Nick Wadsworth

perhaps because of the anxiety I was experiencing, I read a number of journal articles related to gymnasts experiencing mental blocks and the psychological skills that they used to overcome them. Some of the techniques that these athletes were using included imagery, self-talk, and preperformance routines

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Georgia Allen, Claire Thornton and Holly Riby

providing athletes a sense of control over unpredictable situations such as athletic competition ( Brevers, Nils, Dan, & Noël, 2011 ). Superstitious behavior is sometimes displayed during the preperformance routine (PPR) or immediately before competition, making it difficult to differentiate what is