Peer coaching has recently been incorporated into teacher training programs in order to help novice teachers learn theory and incorporate teaching skills, models, and methods into the classroom. Although recent research on peer coaching has identified an increase in the reflective practice of preservice teachers (PTs), few researchers have examined how teacher knowledge develops in the coaching experience. The purpose of this study was to describe the kinds of knowledge exhibited by 8 PTs during coaching activities, and how the roles of teacher and coach contributed to knowledge development during an elementary physical education field-based methods course. Data collection included observations, postlesson conferences, and daily written reports. Results revealed that pedagogical content knowing (PCKg) developed differently in the roles of teacher and coach. Growth in the teaching role resulted initially from interaction of two knowledge components (i.e., students and pedagogy), and later from interaction of three or more components (subject matter, environmental context, and general pedagogical knowledge).
Jayne M. Jenkins and Mary Lou Veal
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of an intervention grounded in Self-Determination Theory on preservice teachers’ instructional behaviors and the motivational responses of their students. A total of 62 preservice physical education teachers enrolled in a secondary physical education content and methods course were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n = 31) or a control group (n = 31). The study employed a pretest/posttest design and data were collected through: (a) observation of preservice teachers’ instruction, (b) a survey measuring preservice teachers’ perceptions of their autonomy support, and (c) a survey measuring secondary students’ motivation. Data analysis used repeated-measures ANOVAs to examine differences between the groups. Results indicated significant changes in autonomy-support for both teachers and students exposed to the intervention.
The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of two postlesson conferencing strategies on preservice teachers’ reflective practices. Fourteen PETE majors each taught three 30-minute lessons to classes of 9 to 13 learners. After each lesson, the preservice teachers conferenced with a trained supervisor under either a directive approach (teacher tell-student listen) or a collaborative approach (student tell–teacher listen/question). The participants then completed two written tasks, a significant event task, and a video-commentary task. In the collaborative approach, the preservice teachers expanded the scope of their reflections to encompass the technical skills of teaching and critical issues related to teaching and schooling. For the video-commentary assignment, the main focus of both groups’ responses was on technical aspects of teaching, and for the significant event assignment, the focus of the responses was on technical, situational, and sensitizing issues of teaching.
John R. Todorovich
Social constructivists posit that learning involves social interactions among individuals in a given place and time. Since teachers play a significant role in how social interactions are developed and determined in the school classroom, it is important to learn how teachers make decisions about their teaching behaviors and interactions with their students. Because extreme ego orientations have been shown to have a mediating effect on performance behavior in achievement settings, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential mediating effect of an extreme ego orientation on preservice teachers’ perspectives on teaching physical education. Data collection consisted of two formal interviews, several informal interviews, and observations of the participants’ teaching. Five themes reflecting the teaching perspectives held by the participants emerged from the data: (a) teachers must maintain control and manage their classes, (b) the best students should be singled out, (c) physical education is an isolated subject area, (c) physical education and athletics are inherently linked, and (d) because only the best can do physical education well, teachers must grade on effort. Findings demonstrate how extreme ego orientations were actualized in preservice teachers’ perspectives of teaching.
Marianne Woods, Grace Goc Karp and Elizabeth Escamilla
This study engaged 26 preservice teachers (PTs) in research focused on students in a secondary methods course who had early field experience (EFE). The purposes of the study were (a) to determine what PTs learned about students in an early field experience (EFE) that engaged them in a structured teacher research project and (b) to examine how the teacher research process was used by PTs. Results indicated that questions about students became more refined and focused through the research process and that there were fluctuations between student-centered and teacher-centered questions during the EFE. The prevailing themes indicated that PTs came to know more about student motivation and interests, characteristics, and peer interactions. More importantly, much of their data challenged previous beliefs and assumptions about students, as PTs began making connections between their newfound knowledge of students and its implications for curriculum, instruction, and management decisions.
Marcia Matanin and Connie Collier
The purpose of this study was to explore and describe three preservice teachers’ beliefs as they evolved throughout a 4-year teacher preparation program. Data collection spanned 5 years and included formal interviews, open-ended questionnaires, and document analysis of reflective writings. The results indicated that participants assimilated program messages into their beliefs about teaching physical education relative to elementary content, teaching effectiveness, and the importance of planning. Participants were less likely to assimilate program messages about classroom management and the purpose of physical education due to the impact of their own biographies. Participants were in favor of emphasizing effort and participation and rejected the program philosophy on assessment of student learning. Data suggest that participants’ K–12 school experiences as well as their lived experiences play a powerful role in the formation of their beliefs about teaching physical education.
Shrehan Lynch and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
objectives of improving society by championing human rights, celebrating diversity, and protecting the environment ( Azzarito et al., 2017 ; Azzarito, Simon, & Marttinen, 2016 ; Harrison & Clark, 2016 ; Ovens et al., 2018 ). To prepare preservice teachers (PTs) to take a critical approach, scholars have
Grace Goc Karp and Marianne L. Woods
Examining how preservice teachers (PTs) perceive and implement assessment may provide clues as to how we can refocus the way future teachers use assessment. A conceptual framework addressing PT beliefs and how they change was applied in this study to examine PTs’ (N = 17) beliefs and understanding of the role of assessment and evaluation on student learning and instruction while implementing a high school physical education program. PTs experienced and discussed the role of needs assessment, assessment-focused instruction, and authentic and alternative assessments in relation to student learning and instruction using a teaching for understanding framework (Wiggins, 1998). Data gathered included surveys and interviews documenting PTs’ previously held beliefs and conceptions; current perceptions of the assessment concepts used during the course and in their units; analysis of assessments used in unit plans; and PTs’ perceptions of assessment and student learning during and after the unit taught. PTs planned and implemented alternative/authentic as well as traditional assessments in three out of four units. PTs’ beliefs about student learning and assessment were varied. Despite ultimate lack of teacher authority, PTs felt that doing these assessments affected their beliefs about assessment. Some PTs accommodated new information about authentic assessment and expanded their understanding, whereas other PTs either resisted or assimilated this new knowledge into existing belief structures. The results indicate that shaping critical and authentic assessment experiences in teacher preparation deserves increased attention and deliberate planning throughout PETE programs if shifts in beliefs are to be made.
The reflections and knowledge development of 7 preservice teachers during a field-based elementary methods course were analyzed and described. Data sources included audiotapes of weekly one-hour reflection sessions, nonparticipant observation of methods course meetings and field experiences, three interviews, and documents. Data were analyzed using a constant comparison method. Changes in the preservice teachers’ knowledge were conceptualized in terms of advanced knowledge acquisition (i.e., relations within their knowledge structures). The preservice teachers (a) made managerial decisions in relation to their effect on the learning environment, (b) planned lesson content in relation to past and future lessons, (c) considered the children’s prior learning and skillfulness in relation to subject matter decisions, and (d) connected their choice of words and actions to the children’s perspectives. The preservice teachers did not, however, develop the ability to respond pedagogically to students during an actual lesson. Linkages between the reflection process and the preservice teachers’ development are drawn.
Colin A. Hardy
Sixty-two preservice teachers were asked to complete a questionnaire in order to examine their perceptions of how they felt that the school-based experiences within a predominantly school-based, government-imposed physical educator education program helped them learn to teach. The preservice teachers placed much emphasis on the accumulation of experiences and “coming to terms” with the realities of teaching, serviced by the university element of the course. Although some higher education institution–school partnerships were helping preservice teachers to look beyond the immediate context, the quality of the collaborative venture was being affected by the variability in mentoring processes, school contexts, and the personal histories of both mentors and preservice teachers. It is suggested that the continual extension of school-based experiences is not only privileging the practical over theory and emphasizing doing more than thinking, but is replacing complexity with simplicity.