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Edward P. Hebert, Dennis Landin and Melinda A. Solmon

A major focus of research on teaching and learning for the past decade has been directed toward developing an understanding of student behaviors and thought processes related to achievement. Using a mediational-processes approach, researchers have identified engagement variables that predict skill learning gains, most notably the quality and quantity of practice and student self-perceptions of efficacy and competence. We sought to extend this correlational research by examining how one aspect of instruction, task progressions, influenced students’ practice quality and task-related cognition. University students enrolled in tennis classes were taught and practiced the serve under one of three conditions, two characterized by easy-to-difficult task sequences, and the third involving practice of the criterion task. Data were collected on students’ practice trials and three task-related cognitions: motivation, self-efficacy, and perception of success. The results indicated student practice and task-related thoughts varied according to entry skill level and the condition under which they practiced. Instructional conditions involving easy-to-difficult progressions resulted in more successful and appropriate practice trials and enhanced student self-efficacy and motivation. These findings parallel those previously reported on the impact of student ability on practice quality and add to an understanding of how instructional conditions affect what students think and do in physical education class contexts.

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Kaitlin R. Lilienthal, Anna Evans Pignol, Jeffrey E. Holm and Nancy Vogeltanz-Holm

This study examined the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) for increasing physical activity in aging adults. Eighty-six participants aged 55 years and older were randomly assigned to receive either four weekly sessions of telephone-based MI for increasing physical activity, or a healthy activity living guide (information only control). Changes from baseline weekly caloric expenditure from physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity, and stage of change for physical activity were compared across groups at posttreatment and six months follow-up. Results indicated that MI participants had higher weekly caloric expenditures from physical activity at posttreatment, but not at six months follow-up; higher self-efficacy for physical activity at six months follow-up; and demonstrated greater stage of change progression across assessments. These findings support the use of telephone-based MI for increasing physical activity in older adults in the short-term. Future studies will need to determine if follow-up booster sessions increase long-term efficacy.

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David J. Ralston

The RAMP system of athletic-injury rehabilitation, its name an acronym representing its component phases, has its foundation in the frequent reassessment of the injury condition. The patient is progressed systematically through a sequence of rehabilitation goals: management of the acute responses to injury, restoration of mobility, and successful completion of performance goals. The RAMP system designates the current highest-priority rehabilitation goal as the primary objective and any other goals as secondary. This ensures that the pursuit of 1 rehabilitation goal is not at the expense of another, more currently relevant goal. The RAMP system provides a systematic format to help less-experienced clinicians progress injured athletes through the phases of recovery from injury. Daily reassessment of an injury allows the rehabilitation plan to be current and appropriate. The goal-based progression of the system ensures maximum resolution of each rehabilitation objective, contributing to athletes’ optimal return to sport or activity

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Mark A. Merrick and Nicole M. McBrier

Context:

Acute musculoskeletal-injury management largely focuses on inhibiting secondary injury, although the data describing secondary injury and the timeline for its progression are sparse.

Objective:

To describe the timeline and early progression of secondary injury in skeletal muscle over the first 5 h after blunt trauma.

Design:

A controlled laboratory study with 2 independent variables (injury status and postinjury time point) in a 2 × 21 factorial.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Subjects:

168 male Sprague Dawley rats (250 to 275 g).

Interventions:

Uniform blunt-contusion injury was caused to the right triceps surae using a drop-weight method; the contralateral limb served as an uninjured control. Both triceps surae were excised and flash frozen at 21 intervals across 5 h postinjury (8 animals, each 15 min).

Main Outcome Measures:

Cytochrome-c oxidase activity via reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to triphenyl-formazan.

Results:

There was an interaction effect (P = .041) between and main effects for both injury status (P < .0005) and postinjury time point (P = .038). In the first 30 min after injury, uninjured tissues did not differ from injured tissues, and both displayed TTC reduction rates in the vicinity of 7.1 ± 0.94 μg · mg−1 · h−1. Statistical differences between uninjured and injured tissues became evident starting at 30 min. TTC reduction for uninjured tissues did not change, but injured tissues declined in a roughly linear fashion across the entire 5-h period to 4.8 ± 1.04 μg · mg−1 · h−1.

Conclusions:

Cytochrome-c oxidase activity, an indicator of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial viability, is diminished by events that follow muscle trauma. Loss of this enzymatic activity becomes statistically evident at 30 min postinjury and continues linearly for at least 5 h. This suggests that secondary injury is a slowly developing problem of more than 5 h duration. A window of opportunity for intervention may lie somewhere within the first 30 min after injury.

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Thomas A. Haugen, Paul A. Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel and Will G. Hopkins

progression. Interestingly, women improved more than men in most event groups in the 5 years preceding age of peak performance. Seemingly, world-class women responded better to training than men during this period. This relationship is somewhat opposite during the teens, as Tønnessen et al 6 observed higher

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Paul A. Solberg, Will G. Hopkins, Gøran Paulsen and Thomas A. Haugen

.1152/japplphysiol.00299.2006 10.1152/japplphysiol.00299.2006 16690791 16. Haugen T , Solberg PA , Morán-Navarro R , Breitschädel F , Hopkins W , Foster C . Peak age and performance progression in world-class track-and-field athletes . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2018 ; 13 ( 9 ): 1122 – 1129

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Martin A. Fees

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William J. Kraemer and Nicholas A. Ratamess

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Assane E.S. Niang and Bradford J. McFadyen

The present study investigated the adaptations of specific power bursts during the combined contexts of the proximity (lead vs. trail limb) and height of an obstruction in relation to limb elevation versus progression. Ten young, adult, male subjects walked at their natural speed during unobstructed walking and the bilateral avoidance of moderate and high obstacles. Hip flexor generation power was unaffected by obstacle height for the leading limb and always delayed for the trailing limb. The knee extensor absorption power burst at toe-off was also eliminated for the trailing limb and was found to reappear in mid-swing. Few differences were seen for ankle push-off power. The results suggest that the hip joint is dedicated to limb advancement only, while the knee joint is directly involved in limb elevation and the control of multiarticular effects.

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Jay R. Ebert, Anne Smith, Peter K. Edwards and Timothy R. Ackland

Context:

Matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) is an established technique for the repair of knee chondral defects. Despite the reported clinical improvement in knee pain and symptoms, little is known on the recovery of knee strength and its return to an appropriate level compared with the unaffected limb.

Objective:

To investigate the progression of isokinetic knee strength and limb symmetry after MACI.

Design:

Prospective cohort.

Setting:

Private functional rehabilitation facility.

Patients:

58 patients treated with MACI for full-thickness cartilage defects to the femoral condyles.

Intervention:

MACI and a standardized rehabilitation protocol.

Main Outcome Measures:

Preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 5 y postsurgery, patients underwent a 3-repetition-maximum straight-leg raise test, as well as assessment of isokinetic knee-flexor and -extensor torque and hamstring:quadriceps (H:Q) ratios. Correlation analysis investigated the association between strength and pain, demographics, defect, and surgery characteristics. Linear-regression analysis estimated differences in strength measures between the operated and nonoperated limbs, as well as Limb Symmetry Indexes (LSI) over time.

Results:

Peak knee-extension torque improved significantly over time for both limbs but was significantly lower on the operated limb preoperatively and at 1, 2, and 5 y. Mean LSIs of 77.0%, 83.0%, and 86.5% were observed at 1, 2, and 5 y, respectively, while 53.4–72.4% of patients demonstrated an LSI ≤ 90% across the postoperative timeline. Peak knee-flexion torque was significantly lower on the operated limb preoperatively and at 1 year. H:Q ratios were significantly higher on the operated limb at all time points.

Conclusions:

While peak knee-flexion and hip-flexor strength were within normal limits, the majority of patients in this study still demonstrated an LSI for peak knee-extensor strength ≤ 90%, even at 5 y. It is unknown how this prolonged knee-extensor deficit may affect long-term graft outcome and risk of reinjury after return to activity.