The purpose of this study was to assess rural older adults’ perceptions of leisure-time physical activity and examine these perceptions from a historical perspective. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 inhabitants (mean age 82 years) of Fogo Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to inductive analysis. Member-checking interviews were conducted with 5 participants. Findings indicated that beginning in childhood, participants were socialized into a subculture of work activity. As a result of these historical and social forces, leisure-time physical activity did not form part of the participants’ lives after retirement. Strategies for successful aging involved keeping busy, but this “busyness” did not include leisure-time physical activity. Results demonstrated the importance of developing a broader understanding of how past and present-day contexts can influence participation in leisure-time physical activity.
Chad S.G. Witcher, Nicholas L. Holt, John C. Spence and Sandra O’Brien Cousins
Jeffrey Gehris, Jeff Kress and Ricky Swalm
This study investigated 10th-grade students’ views concerning the physical effects of an adventure-physical education curriculum and the potential of such a curriculum to enhance components of a multidimensional model of physical self-concept. Semistructured interviews were used to obtain students’ views and participant observations were conducted to corroborate those views. Open coding was used to analyze the data. Students viewed adventure activities as an alternative way to be physically active that was more fun and motivating than traditional forms of exercise. Students expressed how the adventure activities helped them build strength and endurance particularly in their arms and legs. Students felt seven components (body fat, coordination, endurance/fitness, flexibility, physical activity, sports competence, and strength) of physical self-concept were relevant to adventure-physical education and two components (appearance and health) were not. Implications for designing activities and employing teaching strategies to enhance the physical self-concept and fitness of young people are discussed.
Kristiann C. Heesch, Jannique van Uffelen and Wendy J. Brown
The aim of this study was to examine older adults’ understanding and interpretation of a validated questionnaire for physical activity surveillance, the Active Australia Survey (AAS). To address this aim, cognitive interviewing techniques were used during face-to-face semistructured interviews with 44 adults age 65–89 years. Qualitative data analysis revealed that participants were confused with questionnaire phrasing, misunderstood the scope of activities to include in answers, and misunderstood the time frame of activities to report. They also struggled to accurately estimate the frequency and duration of their activities. Our findings suggest that AAS questions may be interpreted differently by older adults than intended by survey developers. Findings also suggest that older adults use a range of methods for calculating PA frequency and duration. The issues revealed in this study may be useful for adapting AAS for use in older community-dwelling adults.
Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith and Deborah S. Baxter
and Ashworth’s ( 2008 ) spectrum of teaching styles, appropriate curriculum models for elementary school, and methods of planning and evaluation. Data Collection The data were collected by the first author (K. McEntyre) by means of six qualitative methods. Copious field notes , focused on the
Shirley Gray, Paul M. Wright, Richard Sievwright and Stuart Robertson
). A practical iterative framework for qualitative data analysis . International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8 , 76 – 84 . doi:10.1177/160940690900800107 10.1177/160940690900800107 Stake , R.E. ( 1995 ). The art of case study research . Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage . Stenhouse , L. ( 1975
Elizabeth A. Taylor and Amanda Paule-Koba
studies that have examined sexual violence, this study was not free of limitations, which encourages future research in this area. First, we utilized qualitative methods and interviewed 21 individuals. While a majority of these individuals did incorporate these topics into the courses, we may have gotten
Nathan H. Parker, Rebecca E. Lee, Daniel P. O’Connor, An Ngo-Huang, Maria Q.B. Petzel, Keri Schadler, Xuemei Wang, Lianchun Xiao, David Fogelman, Richard Simpson, Jason B. Fleming, Jeffrey E. Lee, Ching-Wei D. Tzeng, Sunil K. Sahai, Karen Basen-Engquist and Matthew H.G. Katz
, and treatment, it is particularly important to identify socioecological supports and barriers to improve interventions and to help patients make and maintain healthy lifestyle changes. We used a combination of self-reported, objective, and qualitative methods to investigate these potential
Amy Whitehead, Kanayo Umeh, Barbara Walsh, Eleanor Whittaker and Colum Cronin
. ( 1992 ). Achievement goals and adaptive motivational patterns: The role of the environment . In G.C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise human kinetics (pp. 161 – 176 ). Champaign, IL : Human Kinetics . Andrews , D.L. , Mason , D.S. , & Silk , M.L. ( 2005 ). Qualitative
This study of organizational culture in selected sport associations in Western Australia introduced a quantitative methodology to explore organizational culture to show its usefulness to complement the more qualitative methods traditionally applied to the study of organizational culture. The study used the competing values approach to develop cultural profiles for three sport organizations, which were compared with the sport association members' anecdotal, subjective views of their respective organizations. While the findings reveal evidence of the tensions between volunteers and employees that suggest the existence of subcultures, this study just touches the tip of the organizational culture “iceberg” in sport management. The conclusions indicate some benefits of using the competing values model in conjunction with more qualitative methods to probe sport organizational culture.
William J. Harvey and Greg Reid
The purpose of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the research methods in adapted physical activity studies about children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The strengths and weaknesses of various research methods are discussed by (a) three main types of research questions, (b) identification and description of research participants, (c) reliability and validity of assessment instruments, (d) data collection procedures, and (e) quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis. Strategies to improve research are embedded in each of the five main categories. It is concluded that substantial methodological inconsistencies exist in the current ADHD physical activity literature base. Future research would be strengthened by incorporating recommended suggestions.