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Zoe Rebecca Knowles, Daniel Parnell, Gareth Stratton and Nicola Diane Ridgers

Background:

Qualitative research into the effect of school recess on children’s physical activity is currently limited. This study used a write and draw technique to explore children’s perceptions of physical activity opportunities during recess.

Methods:

299 children age 7−11 years from 3 primary schools were enlisted. Children were grouped into Years 3 & 4 and Years 5 & 6 and completed a write and draw task focusing on likes and dislikes. Pen profiles were used to analyze the data.

Results:

Results indicated ‘likes’ focused on play, positive social interaction, and games across both age groups but showed an increasing dominance of games with an appreciation for being outdoors with age. ‘Dislikes’ focused on dysfunctional interactions linked with bullying, membership, equipment, and conflict for playground space. Football was a dominant feature across both age groups and ‘likes/dislikes’ that caused conflict and dominated the physically active games undertaken.

Conclusion:

Recess was important for the development of conflict management and social skills and contributed to physical activity engagement. The findings contradict suggestions that time spent in recess should be reduced because of behavioral issues.

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Chad S.G. Witcher, Nicholas L. Holt, John C. Spence and Sandra O’Brien Cousins

The purpose of this study was to assess rural older adults’ perceptions of leisure-time physical activity and examine these perceptions from a historical perspective. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 inhabitants (mean age 82 years) of Fogo Island, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and subjected to inductive analysis. Member-checking interviews were conducted with 5 participants. Findings indicated that beginning in childhood, participants were socialized into a subculture of work activity. As a result of these historical and social forces, leisure-time physical activity did not form part of the participants’ lives after retirement. Strategies for successful aging involved keeping busy, but this “busyness” did not include leisure-time physical activity. Results demonstrated the importance of developing a broader understanding of how past and present-day contexts can influence participation in leisure-time physical activity.

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Kristiann C. Heesch, Jannique van Uffelen and Wendy J. Brown

The aim of this study was to examine older adults’ understanding and interpretation of a validated questionnaire for physical activity surveillance, the Active Australia Survey (AAS). To address this aim, cognitive interviewing techniques were used during face-to-face semistructured interviews with 44 adults age 65–89 years. Qualitative data analysis revealed that participants were confused with questionnaire phrasing, misunderstood the scope of activities to include in answers, and misunderstood the time frame of activities to report. They also struggled to accurately estimate the frequency and duration of their activities. Our findings suggest that AAS questions may be interpreted differently by older adults than intended by survey developers. Findings also suggest that older adults use a range of methods for calculating PA frequency and duration. The issues revealed in this study may be useful for adapting AAS for use in older community-dwelling adults.

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Jeffrey Gehris, Jeff Kress and Ricky Swalm

This study investigated 10th-grade students’ views concerning the physical effects of an adventure-physical education curriculum and the potential of such a curriculum to enhance components of a multidimensional model of physical self-concept. Semistructured interviews were used to obtain students’ views and participant observations were conducted to corroborate those views. Open coding was used to analyze the data. Students viewed adventure activities as an alternative way to be physically active that was more fun and motivating than traditional forms of exercise. Students expressed how the adventure activities helped them build strength and endurance particularly in their arms and legs. Students felt seven components (body fat, coordination, endurance/fitness, flexibility, physical activity, sports competence, and strength) of physical self-concept were relevant to adventure-physical education and two components (appearance and health) were not. Implications for designing activities and employing teaching strategies to enhance the physical self-concept and fitness of young people are discussed.

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Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith and Deborah S. Baxter

and Ashworth’s ( 2008 ) spectrum of teaching styles, appropriate curriculum models for elementary school, and methods of planning and evaluation. Data Collection The data were collected by the first author (K. McEntyre) by means of six qualitative methods. Copious field notes , focused on the

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Shirley Gray, Paul M. Wright, Richard Sievwright and Stuart Robertson

). A practical iterative framework for qualitative data analysis . International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8 , 76 – 84 . doi:10.1177/160940690900800107 10.1177/160940690900800107 Stake , R.E. ( 1995 ). The art of case study research . Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage . Stenhouse , L. ( 1975

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Maureen R. Weiss

knowledge and reach in promoting children’s physical activity. I recommend five ways for integrating knowledge: (1) applying social psychological theory to guide research questions, (2) using more longitudinal designs, (3) using a variety of quantitative and qualitative methods, (4) designing studies on

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Elizabeth A. Taylor and Amanda Paule-Koba

studies that have examined sexual violence, this study was not free of limitations, which encourages future research in this area. First, we utilized qualitative methods and interviewed 21 individuals. While a majority of these individuals did incorporate these topics into the courses, we may have gotten

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Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter and Nicole D. Bolter

-appropriate measures, both quantitative and qualitative methods, triangulation of data from multiple sources, and process and implementation variables. Gould and Carson ( 13 ) echoed Petitpas et al’s call for more rigorous evaluation research “ . . . there is a special need for longitudinal evaluations that track

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Nathan H. Parker, Rebecca E. Lee, Daniel P. O’Connor, An Ngo-Huang, Maria Q.B. Petzel, Keri Schadler, Xuemei Wang, Lianchun Xiao, David Fogelman, Richard Simpson, Jason B. Fleming, Jeffrey E. Lee, Ching-Wei D. Tzeng, Sunil K. Sahai, Karen Basen-Engquist and Matthew H.G. Katz

, and treatment, it is particularly important to identify socioecological supports and barriers to improve interventions and to help patients make and maintain healthy lifestyle changes. We used a combination of self-reported, objective, and qualitative methods to investigate these potential