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Kiara Lewis, Claire Fraser and Martin Manby

Background:

The specific circumstances and contexts that may affect overweight and obese children’s participation in physical activity have thus far been given little attention. The qualitative study discussed in this paper explores the experiences of overweight and obese children and young people who have successfully increased their activity levels.

Methods:

The study sample was recruited from a community health and fitness scheme for children aged 5 to 16, with a Body Mass Index (BMI) at or above the 91st centile. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 58 children and young people. Data were analyzed using template analysis.

Results:

The children increased their feelings of capability to undertake physical activity, both while on the scheme and in other physical activity settings. They valued the range of ‘noncompetitive’ activities available and the nonthreatening atmosphere created. The ‘emotional’ support offered by the instructors was perceived as being integral to their enjoyment and continued participation.

Conclusions:

Physical activity providers need to be able to generate opportunities which allow children of any weight status to participate without fear of stigmatization or bullying. The findings of the current study suggest that to be effective what we should be focusing on is improving the physical activity experience from the child’s perspective.

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Annemarthe L. Herrema, Marjan J. Westerman, Ellen J.I. van Dongen, Urszula Kudla and Martijn Veltkamp

motivated to participate (mean = 4.5, range 3–5). Only six of the total study population scored below 4, which were all included in the present research. Procedure Recruitment for the current qualitative study was done face-to-face during the baseline measurements of the larger intervention. A day before

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Claude Ferrand, Sandra Nasarre, Christophe Hautier and Marc Bonnefoy

The purpose of this study was to identify the motivational profiles of physically active older adults and to achieve a better understanding of their perceived motives to explain their regular physical activity behavior in relation to self-determination theory (SDT). To address these aims, this study used quantitative and qualitative approaches. Older adults (n = 92; M = 74.95, SD = 4.6) completed the French version of the Sport Motivational Scale. A cluster analysis showed two motivational profiles with differential motivational patterns. The first was named the high combined profile, with high scores on intrinsic motivation and introjected regulation and low levels of external regulation. The second profile was the low to moderate motivational profile, with low scores on intrinsic motivation and moderate scores on introjected regulation. The qualitative study’s results demonstrate the usefulness of SDT in explaining the relationship between these motivational profiles and the intertwining of the three basic psychological needs.

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Carol M. Vos, Denise M. Saint Arnault, Laura M. Struble, Nancy A. Gallagher and Janet L. Larson

-0361.2004.tb00010.x Bekhet , A.K. , Zauszniewski , J.A. , & Nakhla , W.E. ( 2009 ). Reasons for relocation to retirement communities: A qualitative study . Western Journal of Nursing Research, 31 ( 4 ), 462 – 479 . PubMed ID: 19246417 doi:10.1177/0193945909332009 10.1177/0193945909332009 Chen , Y

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Kelsey DeGrave, Stephen Pack and Brian Hemmings

). Psychosocial responses during different phases of sport injury rehabilitation: A qualitative study . Journal of Athletic Training, 50 ( 1 ), 95 – 104 . PubMed ID: 25322346 doi:10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.52 Grove , R.J. , Lavallee , D. , & Gordon , S. ( 1997 ). Coping with retirement from sport: The

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Scott L. Cresswell and Robert C. Eklund

Athlete burnout has been a concern to sport organizations, the media, and researchers because of its association with negative welfare and performance outcomes (Gould, Udry, Tuffey, & Loehr, 1996; Smith, 1986). Conclusions drawn in existing cross-sectional studies (e.g., Cresswell & Eklund, 2006c; Gould, Tuffey, Udry, & Loehr, 1996) are limited because they are not based on data sensitive to the dynamic nature of athlete burnout. In the current study, professional New Zealand rugby players (n = 9) and members of team management (n = 3) were interviewed multiple times over a 12-month period in an effort to capture accounts reflecting the dynamic nature of their experiences. In these interviews, some players reported experiences consistent with multidimensional descriptions of burnout in the extant literature. During the course of the interviews players reported positive and negative changes within their experiences. Players’ experiences and adaptations were interpreted using existing theoretical explanations.

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Ethan E. Hull, Jeannette M. Garcia, Angela M. Kolen and Robert J. Robertson

Background:

New parents have to adjust to less sleep, less free time, and more responsibility as a result of having a child. The purpose of this study was to examine how having a child impacts the physical activity (PA) beliefs and behaviors of new parents over a 2- to 3-year time period.

Methods:

Participants included 49 men and women (31% men, 96% white) who did not have a child at baseline (26.3 ± 1.1 years old) but did have a child at the time of follow-up (28.9 ± 1.7 years old). The child’s mean age at follow-up was 12 ± 7 months old. PA was measured via questionnaire at baseline and again at follow-up. Interviews regarding PA occurred at follow-up.

Results:

PA significantly decreased in parents across the time period (P < .001), and parents attributed this decrease to having a child and being pregnant. Parents mentioned they lack time, energy, and motivation for PA as a result of caring for a new child. Parents who maintained their activity level stated they prioritized PA and chose activities they enjoyed.

Conclusion:

These results show that although activity levels decrease in individuals who have a child, PA in new parents may be a function of priority, intensity, and enjoyment.

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Paul J. McCarthy and Marc V. Jones

This focus group study examined the sources of enjoyment and nonenjoyment among younger and older English children in the sampling years of sport participation (ages 7–12). Concurrent inductive and deductive content analysis revealed that, consistent with previous research, younger and older children reported sources of enjoyment such as perceived competence, social involvement and friendships, psychosocial support, and a mastery-oriented learning environment. Nonenjoyment sources included inappropriate psychosocial support, increasing competitive orientation, negative feedback and reinforcement, injuries, pain, and demonstrating a lack of competence. Differences between younger and older children’s sources of enjoyment and nonenjoyment also emerged. Younger children reported movement sensations as a source of enjoyment and punishment for skill errors and low informational support as nonenjoyment sources. Older children reported social recognition of competence, encouragement, excitement, and challenge as sources of enjoyment with rivalry, overtraining, and high standards as sources of nonenjoyment. These differences underscore the importance of tailoring youth sport in the sampling years to the needs of the child.

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Thierry Long, Nathalie Pantaléon, Gérard Bruant and Fabienne d’Arripe-Longueville

Based on game reasoning theory (Shields & Bredemeier, 2001) and related research, the present study aimed at describing young elite athletes’ perceptions of rules compliance and transgression in competitive settings, as well as the underlying reasons for these actions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 young elite athletes. The qualitative analysis showed that respect and transgression of rules in competitive settings were perceived to depend upon the athletes’ individual characteristics (e.g., desire to win), their social environment (e.g., coach’s pressure, team norms), sports values and virtues (e.g., fair play, the effort ethic), and modern sports rewards (e.g., media recognition, financial rewards). These results confirmed and expanded game reasoning theory and illustrated moral disengagement mechanisms (Bandura et al., 1996) in the sport domain.