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Eric Kyle O’Neal, Samantha Louise Johnson, Brett Alan Davis, Veronika Pribyslavska and Mary Caitlin Stevenson-Wilcoxson

heavily in moderate to hot environments is to determine if adequate recovery fluid intake (ARFI) is consistently achieved between training bouts. For runners or coaches and sports medicine staff working with runners, a simple and objective method to determine if ARFI has taken place between training bouts

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Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza and Michael Kellmann

, and appropriate adjustments to fatigue can be planned subsequently. 6 , 8 A major field of monitoring does not aim at a direct performance enhancement. Rather, training load and subsequent fatigue are assessed via monitoring and can be used to quantify the recovery status (eg, high vs low recovered

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Francisco Tavares, Martyn Beaven, Júlia Teles, Dane Baker, Phil Healey, Tiaki B. Smith and Matthew Driller

At the elite level, rugby training often occurs 2 or more times daily over 2 or more consecutive days during a week. 1 , 2 An imbalance between training stress and recovery can lead to an excessive level of accumulated fatigue over the training week 1 and undesirable chronic fatigue over a

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Ann M. Quinn and Barry J. Fallon

Objective:

To explore predictors of recovery time.

Design:

Repeated measures on 4 occasions throughout recovery included injury appraisal, demographics, emotional responses, and psychological variables.

Participants:

Elite injured athletes (N = 136).

Main Outcome Measure:

Recovery time.

Results:

At all phases, being a team athlete was a significant predictor of faster recovery. At partial recovery (approximately one-third of the recovery time), significant predictors were active coping, confidence of reaching full recovery in the estimated time, not completing rehabilitation, and having less social support. By semirecovery (approximately two-thirds of the recovery time), vigor and using denial significantly predicted quicker recovery. At recovery, having previously suffered a serious nonsporting injury or illness, vigor, more confidence, and intensity of effort significantly predicted faster recovery.

Conclusions:

This study has expanded on and refined the work in this area and will help increase understanding of the role that psychological variables play in decreasing recovery time, which has important implications for those implementing rehabilitation programs.

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

to exercise, improving brain performance, decreasing delayed onset muscle soreness or pain, reducing injury severity, enhancing recovery from injury, reducing gastrointestinal problems, and decreasing respiratory tract infection illness load. For the most part, these effects are not ergogenic, but

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Corey P. Ochs, Melissa C. Kay and Johna K. Register-Mihalik

resulting time out of play and the potential athletic consequences following this time loss. Concussions in professional sports, such as football and ice hockey, are unique due to players’ job security relying on their ability to perform. Typically, initial clinical recovery occurs within 7 to 10 days 3

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Susan Y. Kwiecien, Malachy P. McHugh, Stuart Goodall, Kirsty M. Hicks, Angus M. Hunter and Glyn Howatson

Cold-water immersion (CWI) is a popular intervention utilized to facilitate recovery and improve function in the days following strenuous exercise. Two comprehensive reviews on CWI indicate some effectiveness at reducing soreness but inconclusive effects on other measures of recovery. 1 , 2 As

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Steven Nagib and Shelley W. Linens

Clinical Scenario Although headache is the most commonly reported symptom associated with concussion, dizziness comes in at a close second with report rates between 66% and 77%. 1 This statistic is concerning as dizziness may be a predictor of prolonged recovery. 1 Any patient, who has symptoms

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Gethin H. Evans, Jennifer Miller, Sophie Whiteley and Lewis J. James

The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of water and a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution on postexercise rehydration when a standard meal was consumed during rehydration. Eight healthy participants took part in two experimental trials during which they lost 1.5 ± 0.4% of initial body mass via intermittent exercise in the heat. Participants then rehydrated over a 60-min period with water or a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution in a volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss during exercise. In addition, a standard meal was ingested during this time which was equivalent to 30% of participants predicted daily energy expenditure. Urine samples were collected before and after exercise and for 3 hr after rehydration. Cumulative urine volume (981 ± 458 ml and 577 ± 345 mL; p = .035) was greater, while percentage fluid retained (50 ± 20% and 70 ± 21%; p = .017) was lower during the water compared with the NaCl trial respectively. A high degree of variability in results was observed with one participant producing 28% more urine and others ranging from 18–83% reduction in urine output during the NaCl trial. The results of this study suggest that after exercise induced dehydration, the ingestion of a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution leads to greater fluid retention compared with water, even when a meal is consumed postexercise. Furthermore, ingestion of plain water may be effective for maintenance of fluid balance when food is consumed in the rehydration period.

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Patrick P.J.M. Schoenmakers, Florentina J. Hettinga and Kate E. Reed

vigorous exercise (work interval) are interspersed with recovery periods, and a complex interplay between the number of intervals, the exercise intensities, and the duration of both the work and recovery intervals determines the workload of an HIIT session. 2 , 3 Based on the duration and exercise