This article examines the piloting of a cultural safety training module in the Canadian Red Cross’s (CRC’s) Water Safety Instructor Development Program. Thematic analysis of interviews with program participants and facilitators revealed two main themes: Inclusion is important and valued by instructors, and accommodation for cultural and ethnic diversity is difficult to achieve in aquatics settings. Doherty and Chelladurai’s (1999) framework was used to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the pilot module. In conclusion, the authors propose that cultural safety training for the instructors alone will not lead to the provision of culturally safe sport; rather, there needs to be a change in the overall organizational culture in which the CRC’s programs are offered if they are to succeed. These findings make three contributions to the literature. First, the authors bridge the existing bodies of literature on critical Whiteness theory and sport management literature that addresses the management of diversity. Second, the authors explore the novel application of cultural safety training for instructors of a sport program. Finally, the authors offer recommendations to enable the development of an organizational culture that is facilitative and supportive with respect to inclusion (i.e., is welcoming) and accommodation (i.e., is flexible and adaptable) of cultural and ethnic diversity in aquatics programming.
Kyle A. Rich and Audrey R. Giles
Sakuko Ishizaki, Takako Koshimizu, Kae Yanagisawa, Yoshiko Akiyama, Yuko Mekada, Nobuhiro Shiozawa, Noriko Takahaski, Jun Yamakawa and Yukari Kawano
This study was to assess the effect of a fixed dietary intake on biomarkers of red blood cell (RBC) biosynthesis and degradation. Over a two-year period, eight collegiate rhythmic gymnasts participated in this study. During the first year, they ate self-selected diets. During the second year, a fixed dietary intake involving consumption of common Japanese foods containing 15 mg iron and 1500 kcal energy was maintained for 4 wk at the beginning of the program. Fixed dietary intakes resulted in significantly increased intakes of protein, minerals and vitamins, and significantly decreased fat intake, but total energy and carbohydrate intakes were unchanged. Mean values of RBC, Hb, Ht, or TIBC were not affected by the intervention. A fixed dietary intervention appeared to enhance RBC turnover by increasing the capacity for erythrocyte biosynthesis and degradation, although the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia remained unchanged.
Pamela J. Redding
Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy
Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a syndrome resulting from an energy deficiency relative to the balance between dietary energy intake (EI) and the energy expenditure (EE) required to support homeostasis, health, activities of daily living, growth, and sport. RED-S affects
Bryan Holtzman, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale and Kathryn E. Ackerman
Female Athlete Triad (Triad) and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) are two similar syndromes underpinned by low energy availability (LEA) that can have negative health consequences in athletes ( De Souza et al., 2014 ; Mountjoy et al., 2014 ). Triad was originally described in 1993
Arupendra Mozumdar and Gary Liguori
To examine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) with occupational physical activity (OCPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among working women.
The prevalence of MetSyn was calculated for 642 working women. Self-report questionnaire was used to determine levels of OCPA and LTPA and other lifestyle factors. Biometric data were directly collected on all women.
No direct relationship for OCPA and the MetSyn was determined. Sufficient LTPA however, was significantly associated with lower prevalence of MetSyn. No dose response relationship was determined with PA and MetSyn. The odds of having MetSyn was significantly higher for sedentary workers with insufficient LTPA compared with those achieving sufficient LTPA. The odds for MetSyn were similar among women employed in moderately active or heavy work yet completing insufficient LTPA compared with women doing sufficient LTPA.
For women with sedentary occupations, a sufficient amount of LTPA is essential to reduce the risk of having the MetSyn. Women in moderate to heavy working occupations may be acquiring adequate amounts of PA to avoid having the MetSyn.
Marco Malaguti, Marta Baldini, Cristina Angeloni, Pierluigi Biagi and Silvana Hrelia
The authors evaluated the role of a high-protein, low-calorie, polyunsaturated fatty-acid (PUFA) -supplemented diet on anthropometric parameters, erythrocytemembrane fatty-acid composition, and plasma antioxidant defenses of nonprofessional volleyball athletes. The athletes were divided in two groups: One (n = 5) followed the Mediterranean diet, and the other (n = 6) followed a high-protein, low-calorie diet with a 3-g/day fish-oil supplementation. All the athletes had anthropometric measurements taken, both at the beginning and at the end of the study, which lasted for 2 months. Body-mass index and total body fat were significantly diminished in the second group, while they remained unchanged in the first. Plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) was significantly increased in the plasma of both groups, with no differences between the groups, suggesting that physical activity, not the different diets, is the main contributor to the increase of plasma TAA. The second group showed a significant increase in erythrocytemembrane PUFA content and in the unsaturation index value (UI) because of the fish-oil supplementation. A high-protein, low-carbohydrate, fish-oil-supplemented diet seems to be useful only when the aim of the diet is to obtain weight loss in a short-term period. The significant increase in the UI of erythrocyte membranes indicates the potential for harm, because a high intake of PUFA might increase susceptibility to lipid peroxidation not counterbalanced by a higher increase in TAA. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet seems to be the better choice.
Lee Phillip McGinnis and James W. Gentry
The golf industry is currently undergoing a “churning effect” whereby players are leaving nearly as quickly as they enter; this effect is especially prevalent among women. We examine interviews from male and female golf professionals, as well as transcripts from interviews with female participants of various playing levels and experience, in order to determine the reasons women not only leave golf, but more importantly, why they stay. Our data indicate that once golfers have become hooked on the game, interpersonal and structural constraints have more influence on participation than intrapersonal constraints, whereas women new to golf face intrapersonal constraints (mainly related to ability) and structural constraints (but ones somewhat different from frequent participants). We suggest strategies that might reduce the intrapersonal (helping new players of both sexes achieve a minimal level of mastery), interpersonal (development of a more gender neutral environment to reduce the likelihood of “differentness” being noted), and structural (provision of child care facilities at the course, reducing the 18-hole mentality) constraints.
Samuel Robertson, Jonathan D. Bartlett and Paul B. Gastin
Decision-support systems are used in team sport for a variety of purposes including evaluating individual performance and informing athlete selection. A particularly common form of decision support is the traffic-light system, where color coding is used to indicate a given status of an athlete with respect to performance or training availability. However, despite relatively widespread use, there remains a lack of standardization with respect to how traffic-light systems are operationalized. This paper addresses a range of pertinent issues for practitioners relating to the practice of traffic-light monitoring in team sports. Specifically, the types and formats of data incorporated in such systems are discussed, along with the various analysis approaches available. Considerations relating to the visualization and communication of results to key stakeholders in the team-sport environment are also presented. In order for the efficacy of traffic-light systems to be improved, future iterations should look to incorporate the recommendations made here.