In the present article, we investigate the effects of specific nonverbal behaviors signaling dominance and submissiveness on impression formation and outcome expectation in the soccer penalty kick situation. In Experiment 1, results indicated that penalty takers with dominant body language are perceived more positively by soccer goalkeepers and players and are expected to perform better than players with a submissive body language. This effect was similar for both video and point-light displays. Moreover, in contrast to previous studies, we found no effect of clothing (red vs. white) in the video condition. In Experiment 2, we used the implicit association test to demonstrate that dominant body language is implicitly associated with a positive soccer player schema whereas submissive body language is implicitly associated with a negative soccer player schema. The implications of our findings are discussed with reference to future implications for theory and research in the study of person perception in sport.
Philip Furley, Matt Dicks and Daniel Memmert
JoAnn Reis and Anne Marie Bird
This two part investigation tested whether or not a self-report measure of broad or narrow attentional style (i.e., the BET and RED subscales of the Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style-TAIS) could predict cue-processing ability on a task that required processing of peripheral cues. In Experiment 1, it was hypothesized that broad attenders would be superior to narrow attenders. Two separate probe techniques were used to measure peripheral cue processing. Results indicated marginal support for the prediction on the first probe and strong support on the second probe. In Experiment 2, subjects received either positive or negative false feedback in an attempt to manipulate level of anxiety and to observe the subsequent effects on the cue-processing ability of broad and narrow attenders. Broad attenders who received positive feedback processed peripheral cues faster than all other subjects. Findings were discussed within the framework of Kahneman's capacity theory of attention and the desirability of employing a precise operational definition of attention within individual difference research.
Shu-Hui Yeh, Hsiu-Ling Lai, Chiu-Yueh Hsiao, Li-Wei Lin, Yu-Kuan Chuang, Yu-Ying Yang and Kuender D. Yang
Moderate physical activity has been shown to promote immunity. Different moderate physical activities may have different effects on immunity. This study investigated the impacts of a 12-week regular music aerobic exercise (MAE) program on leukocyte distribution, lymphocyte subsets, and lymphocyte polarization.
The study used a case-control design with pretest and posttest. Forty-seven middle-age women were recruited for this study. Three participants dropped out, 22 completed the 12-week MAE program, and the other 22 participants who had heat-intolerance or limited schedule eligibility were enrolled as the control group without the MAE exercise.
Results showed that the MAE exercise for 12 weeks didn’t change red blood cells or total leukocytes but increased lymphocyte counts. The women in MAE group revealed significant increases (P ≤ 0.01) of CD3CD4, CD3CD8, and CD4CD25 cells, associated with Treg polarization showing enhanced FoxP3 but not T-bet, Gata-3, or RORγT expression (P < .01). The control group without exercise revealed insignificant change of lymphocyte subsets or lymphocyte polarization.
This study shows that MAE increases specific lymphocyte subsets and enhances Treg cell differentiation. It is suggested to encourage moderate physical activity of music aerobic exercise to enhance lymphocyte function of middle-aged women.
This article presents a study that examined what citizen journalism on Twitter has meant for the professional identity and working practices of British sport journalists, using data from a series of in-depth, semistructured interviews. Sport journalists recognized the need to strive for higher professional standards to ensure that their output is of greater cultural significance than that of citizen journalists. Trust—achieved through the ideologies of truth, reliability, and insight—was seen as essential to achieving this distinction. The democratization of breaking news has meant that red-top tabloid and 24-hr rolling news environments must reinvent themselves by making greater use of other journalistic practices including investigative reporting.
Claire-Marie Roberts and Jacky Forsyth
, 2018 ; Keay, 2018 ), and that instances of heavy menstrual bleeding (resulting in iron deficiency) should not be overlooked ( Bruinvels, 2018 ). Yet, Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S), otherwise known as the Female Athlete Triad, can impair physiological function such as menstrual function
Rob Gray, Anders Orn and Tim Woodman
ironic display group, participants were penalized 1 point for hitting the quadrant marked with gray (note, this quadrant was red in the actual experiment). For any other pitch location, both groups received 0 points. The locations of the target and ironic zones were randomized from trial to trial. For
Robert J. Brychta, Vaka Rögnvaldsdóttir, Sigríður L. Guðmundsdóttir, Rúna Stefánsdóttir, Soffia M. Hrafnkelsdóttir, Sunna Gestsdóttir, Sigurbjörn A. Arngrímsson, Kong Y. Chen and Erlingur Jóhannsson
-reported and actigraphy-measured bedtimes for 144 students. Plots are shown for: a. School nights at age 15 y (filled blue circles), b. Non-school nights at age 15 y (open blue circles), c. School-nights at age 17 y (filled red circles), d. Non-school nights at age 17 y (open red circles). Magnitude
Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J. Smith and Nazanin Derakshan
pointing either to the right or left of the fixation cross for 700 ms. A memory array subsequently appeared for 100 ms, followed by a retention interval lasting 900 ms. A test (comparison) array then appeared for 2,000 ms. Participants were instructed to memorize the orientation of the red rectangles on
Denver M.Y. Brown and Steven R. Bray
). The task was set up such that participants performed five 2-min blocks each consisting of 135 trials that were separated by four 30-s breaks during which participants rated their level of mental fatigue. The word stimuli (i.e., BLACK, BLUE, GREEN, RED, PINK, and GRAY) were presented on a white
Kelsey Lucca, David Gire, Rachel Horton and Jessica A. Sommerville
, Humphry, Carswell, and Core ( 2001 ), Tamis-Lemonda, Bornstien, and Baumwell ( 2001 ), Caplan and Kinsbourne ( 1976 ), Frodi, Bridges, and Grolnick ( 1985 ), Grolnick, Frodi, and Bridgers ( 1984 ), Hauser-Cram ( 1996 ), Maslin-Cole, Bretherton, and Morgan ( 1993 ), Messer et al. ( 1986 ), Redding et