High altitude exposure can increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) and induce weight loss in obese populations, but there is a lack of research regarding RMR in athletes at moderate elevations common to endurance training camps. The present study aimed to determine whether 4 weeks of classical altitude training affects RMR in middle-distance runners. Ten highly trained athletes were recruited for 4 weeks of endurance training undertaking identical programs at either 2200m in Flagstaff, Arizona (ALT, n = 5) or 600m in Canberra, Australia (CON, n = 5). RMR, anthropometry, energy intake, and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were assessed pre- and posttraining. Weekly run distance during the training block was: ALT 96.8 ± 18.3km; CON 103.1 ± 5.6km. A significant interaction for Time*Group was observed for absolute (kJ.day-1) (F-statistic, p-value: F(1,8)=13.890, p = .01) and relative RMR (F(1,8)=653.453, p = .003) POST-training. No significant changes in anthropometry were observed in either group. Energy intake was unchanged (mean ± SD of difference, ALT: 195 ± 3921kJ, p = .25; CON: 836 ± 7535kJ, p = .75). A significant main effect for time was demonstrated for total Hbmass (g) (F(1,8)=13.380, p = .01), but no significant interactions were observed for either variable [Total Hbmass (g): F(1,8)=1.706, p = .23; Relative Hbmass (g.kg-1): F(1,8)=0.609, p = .46]. These novel findings have important practical application to endurance athletes routinely training at moderate altitude, and those seeking to optimize energy management without compromising training adaptation. Altitude exposure may increase RMR and enhance training adaptation,. During training camps at moderate altitude, an increased energy intake is likely required to support an increased RMR and provide sufficient energy for training and performance.
Amy L. Woods, Avish P. Sharma, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Philo U. Saunders, Anthony J. Rice and Kevin G. Thompson
Heidi K. Byrne and Jack H. Wilmore
The present study was designed to investigate the effects of exercise training on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in moderately obese women. It was hypothesized that exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate. Nineteen previously sedentary, moderately obese women (age = 38.0 ± 0.9 years, percent body fat = 37.5 ± 0.8) trained for 20 weeks using either resistance training (RT) or a combination of resistance training arid walking (RT/W). The high intensity resistance training program was designed to increase strength and fat-free mass and the walking program to increase aerobic capacity. There was also a non-exercising control group (C) of 9 subjects in this study. Fat-free mass was significantly increased in both the RT (+1.90 kg) and RT/W (+1.90 kg) groups as a result of the training program. No group showed significant changes in fat mass or relative body fat from pre- to post-training. Aerobic capacity was slightly, though significantly, increased in the RT/W group only. The RT group showed a significant increase (+44 kcal · day−1), while the RT/W group showed a significant decrease (-53 kcal · day−1) in resting metabolic rate post-training. RT can potentiate an increase in RMR through an increase in fat-free mass, and the decrease in RMR in the RT/W group may have been a result of heat acclimation from the walk training.
Janice Thompson, Melinda M. Manore and James S. Skinner
The resting metabolic rate (RMR) and thermic effect of a meal (TEM) were determined in 13 low-energy intake (LOW) and 11 adequate-energy intake (ADQ) male endurance athletes. The LOW athletes reported eating 1,490 kcal·day-1 less than the ADQ group, while the activity level of both groups was similar. Despite these differences, both groups had a similar fat-free mass (FFM) and had been weight stable for at least 2 years. The RMR was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the LOW group compared to the values of the ADQ group (1.19 vs. 1.29 kcal·FFM-1·hr-l, respectively); this difference represents a lower resting expenditure of 158 kcal·day-1. No differences were found in TEM between the two groups. These results suggest that a lower RMR is one mechanism that contributes to weight maintenance in a group of low- versus adequate-energy intake male athletes.
W. Daniel Schmidt, Gerald C. Hyner, Roseann M. Lyle, Donald Corrigan, Gerald Bottoms and Christopher L. Melby
This study examined resting metabolic rate (RMR) and thermic effect of a meal (TEM) among athletes who had participated in long-term anaerobic or aerobic exercise. Nine collegiate wrestlers were matched for age, weight, and fat-free weight with 9 collegiate swimmers. Preliminary testing included maximal oxygen consumption, maximal anaerobic capacity (MAnC) for both the arms and the legs, and percent body fat. On two separate occasions, RMR and TEM were measured using indirect calorimetry.
Penny Harris Rosenzweig and Stella L. Volpe
Iron plays an important role in thyroid hormone metabolism; thus, iron deficiency anemia may lead to alterations in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Based on this premise, two iron-deficient-anemic female athletes, 18 (A 1) and 21 (A2) years of age, were supplemented with 23 mg/day of elemental iron to assess its effects on iron and thyroid hormone status and RMR at 0, 8, and 16 weeks. Anemia was clinically corrected in both subjects (hemoglobin: Al = 11.0 to 13.0 to 12.6 g/dL and A2 = 11.5 to 13.9 to 12.6 g/dL, 0 to 8 to 16 weeks, respectively). Serum ferritin (SF) concentration also improved in both subjects (Al: 5.0 to 11.0 to 15.0 ng/dL and A2: 5.0 to 16.0 to 20.0 ng/dL; 0 to 8 to 16 weeks, respectively); however, 16 weeks of iron supplementation did not fully replete iron stores. A2 increased dietary iron and ascorbic acid intakes from 8 to 16 weeks, possibly accounting for her higher SF concentrations. RMR and total thyroxine changed over time: Al increased while A2 decreased in these variables. Although clinical correction of iron deficiency anemia occurred after 16 weeks of low-level iron supplementation, RMR and thyroid hormone metabolism were oppositely affected in the two subjects.
Jeffrey A. Potteiger, Erik P. Kirk, Dennis J. Jacobsen and Joseph E. Donnelly
To determine whether 16 months of moderate-intensity exercise training changes resting metabolic rate (RMR) and substrate oxidation in overweight young adults.
Participants were randomly assigned to nonexercise control (CON, 18 women, 15 men) or exercise (EX, 25 women, 16 men) groups. EX performed supervised and verified exercise 3–5 d/wk, 20–45 min/session, at 60–75% of heart-rate reserve. Body mass and composition, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), RMR, and resting substrate oxidation were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 16 months of training.
EX men had significant decreases from baseline to 9 months in body mass (94.6 ± 12.4 to 89.2 ± 9.5 kg) and percent fat (28.3 ± 4.6 to 24.5 ± 3.9). CON women had significant increases in body mass (80.2 ± 8.1 to 83.2 ± 9.2 kg) from baseline to 16 months. VO2max increased significantly from baseline to 9 months in the EX men (3.67 ± 0.62 to 4.34 ± 0.58 L/min) and EX women (2.53 ± 0.32 to 3.03 ± 0.42 L/min). RMR increased from baseline to 9 months in EX women (1,583 ± 221 to 1,692 ± 230 kcal/d) and EX men (1,995 ± 184 to 2,025 ± 209 kcal/d). There were no significant differences within genders for either EX or CON in fat or carbohydrate oxidation. Fat oxidation was significantly higher for women than for men at 9 months in both CON and EX groups.
Regular moderate-intensity exercise in healthy, previously sedentary overweight and obese adults increases RMR but does not alter resting substrate oxidation. Women tend to have higher RMR and greater fat oxidation, when expressed per kilogram fat-free mass, than men.
Charlotte P. Guebels, Lynn C. Kam, Gianni F. Maddalozzo and Melinda M. Manore
It is hypothesized that exercise-related menstrual dysfunction (ExMD) results from low energy availability (EA), defined as energy intake (EI)—exercise energy expenditure (EEE). When EI is too low, resting metabolic rate (RMR) may be reduced to conserve energy.
To measure changes in RMR and EA, using four methods to quantify EEE, before/after a 6-month diet intervention aimed at restoring menses in women with ExMD; eumenorrheic (Eumen) active controls (n = 9) were also measured.
Active women with ExMD (n = 8) consumed +360 kcal/d (supplement) for 6 months; RMR was measured 2 times at 0 months/6 months. EI and total energy expenditure (TEE) were estimated using 7-day diet/activity records, with EA assessed using four methods to quantify EEE.
At baseline, groups did not differ for age, gynecological age, body weight, lean/fat mass, VO2max, EI and EA, but mean TEE was higher in ExMD (58.3 ± 4.4kcal/kgFFM/d; Eumen = 50.6 ± 2.4; p < .001) and energy balance (EB) more negative (–10.3 ± 6.9 kcal/kgFFM/d; Eumen=-3.0 ± 9.7; p = .049). RMR was higher in ExMD (31.3 ± 1.8 kcal/kgFFM/d) vs. Eumen (29.1 ± 1.9; p < .02). The intervention increased weight (1.6 ± 2.0kg; p = .029), but there were no significant changes in EA (0-month range = 28.2–36.7 kcal/kgFFM/d; 6-month range = 30.0–45.4; p > .05), EB (6 months = –0.7 ± 15.1 kcal/kgFFM/d) or RMR (0 months = 1515 ± 142; 6 months = 1522 ± 134 kcal/d). Assessment of EA varied dramatically (~30%) by method used.
For the ExMD group, EI and weight increased with +360 kcal/d for 6 months, but there were no significant changes in EB, EA or RMR. No threshold EA value was associated with ExMD. Future research should include TEE, EB and clearly quantifying EEE (e.g.,>4 MET) if EA is measured.
Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta and Anna Melin
is scientific evidence concerning the causality between relative energy deficiency and the metabolic and endocrine perturbations related to suppressed resting metabolic rate (RMR), subclinical and clinical menstrual dysfunction in women, and poor bone health ( Loucks et al., 1998 ; Loucks & Thuma
Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin
al., 2014 ). Resting metabolic rate (RMR) represents the energy cost of basic physiological functions, including reproductive function and thermoregulation. The ratio (RMR ratio ) between standardized measured RMR ( m RMR) and predicted RMR ( p RMR) has been reported to be lower in amenorrheic compared with
Jordan Andre Martenstyn, Lauren Powell, Natasha Nassar, Mark Hamer and Emmanuel Stamatakis
.2.241 2305711 21. Lee SH , Kim EK . Accuracy of predictive equations for resting metabolic rates and daily energy expenditures of police officials doing shift work by type of work . Clin Nutr Res . 2012 ; 1 ( 1 ): 66 – 77 . PubMed ID: 23429979 doi: 10.7762/cnr.2012.1.1.66 23429979 22. Stamatakis E