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Johna K. Register, Jason P. Mihalik, Christopher J. Hirth and Thomas E. Brickner

Column-editor : Joseph J. Piccininni

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E. Randy Eichner

Sickle cell trait can pose a grave risk for some athletes. In the past few years, exertional sickling has killed nine athletes, including five college football players in training. Exercise-physiology research shows how and why sickle red cells can accumulate in the bloodstream during intense exercise bouts. Sickle cells can “logjam” blood vessels and lead to collapse from ischemic rhabdomyolysis. Diverse clinical and metabolic problems from explosive rhabdomyolysis can threaten life. Sickling can begin in 2-3 minutes of any all-out exertion, or during sustained intense exertion – and can reach grave levels very soon thereafter if the athlete struggles on or is urged on by coaches despite warning signs. Heat, dehydration, altitude, and asthma can increase the risk for and worsen sickling. This exertional sickling syndrome, however, is unique and in the field can be distinguished from heat illnesses. Sickling collapse is a medical emergency. Fortunately, screening and precautions can prevent sickling collapse and enable sickle-trait athletes to thrive in their sports.

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Carl G. Mattacola and Lori L. Rice


Dissemination of information regarding the latest research findings in rehabilitative health care is often limited to professional journals.


The purpose of the paper is to describe opportunities to better distribute scientific information to wider swaths than normally contained within a readership of a journal, to describe a process to deliver important information via the Cooperative Extension Service, and provide an example of such an informational brochure.


An interdisciplinary approach was developed to provide access to a larger cohort of individuals the latest research findings regarding heat and hydration.

Data Extraction:

CINAHL, Medline, and Sport Discus were reviewed from 1966 to 2006 using the terms Heat, Hydration, Rhabdomyolysis, Rehabilitation, Heat Exhaustion, Heat Stroke, and Dehydration.

Data Synthesis:

We found substantial information describing recommendations for preventing, recognizing, and treating illness due to variance in heat and hydration. The information was succinctly summarized, converted to a 7th grade reading level, and shared with a larger audience via a unique model available through Cooperative Extension Agencies.


Providing scientific information via a Cooperative Extension Model enables sharing of information from experts to communities. This methodology increases the distribution of the latest scientific knowledge to broader audiences.

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. As explained by Henderson et al., the development of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) typically follows periods of high levels of physical exertion, significant eccentric loading exercise, and/or secondarily to heat-related illness and hypohydration. a. True b. False 10. In the CASE Report, what was

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Julio Cezar Q. Machado, Caroline M.O. Volpe, Leonardo S. Vasconcellos and José A. Nogueira-Machado

some situations, serum creatinine may be normal when the kidney function is committed (50%–60% already lost). The effect of physical exercises on renal function is really not known. It has been reported that strenuous exercise is associated with rhabdomyolysis and gastrointestinal problems. Lippi et

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Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall

cardiovascular system, muscle damage, oxidative stress, and nerve conduction velocity is similar to regular exercise. 8 However, serious side effects have been reported with BFR in healthy populations including venous thrombosis, rhabdomyolysis, and pulmonary emboli. 9 Additional data are needed on the short

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Tanya Prewitt-White, Christopher P. Connolly, Yuri Feito, Alexandra Bladek, Sarah Forsythe, Logan Hamel and Mary Ryan McChesney

regarding severe injuries and life-threatening conditions, such as rhabdomyolysis ( Hadeed, Kuehl, Elliot, & Sleigh, 2011 ; Mitchell, 2008 ; Tilghman, 2010 ), the available evidence suggests this training modality is not more dangerous than other more traditional training programs ( Hak, Hodzovic

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Jesse Couture

fun some of the serious effects of overtraining, including rhabdomyolysis. “Rhabdo,” as it’s commonly known (and which appears in giant red letters, above the clown, in the aforementioned image), is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that involves the degeneration of muscle tissue

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Lori A. Gano-Overway and Kristen Dieffenbach

. International Journal of Coaching Science, 5 , 93 – 123 . Eichner , E.R. ( 2018 ). Football team Rhabdomyolysis: The pain beats the gain and the coach is to blame . Current Sports Medicine Reports, 17 , 142 – 143 . PubMed ID: 29738317 doi:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000484 10.1249/JSR.0000000000000484