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Ross Tucker, Michael I. Lambert and Timothy D. Noakes

Purpose:

To analyze pacing strategies employed during men's world-record performances for 800-m, 5000-m, and 10,000-m races.

Methods:

In the 800-m event, lap times were analyzed for 26 world-record performances from 1912 to 1997. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, times for each kilometer were analyzed for 32 (1922 to 2004) and 34 (1921 to 2004) world records.

Results:

The second lap in the 800-m event was significantly slower than the first lap (52.0 ± 1.7 vs 54.4 ± 4.9 seconds, P < .00005). In only 2 world records was the second lap faster than the first lap. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, the first and final kilometers were significantly faster than the middle kilometer intervals, resulting in an overall even pace with an end spurt at the end.

Conclusion:

The optimal pacing strategy during world-record performances differs for the 800-m event compared with the 5000-m and 10,000-m events. In the 800-m event, greater running speeds are achieved in the first lap, and the ability to increase running speed on the second lap is limited. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, an end spurt occurs because of the maintenance of a reserve during the middle part of the race. In all events, pacing strategy is regulated in a complex system that balances the demand for optimal performance with the requirement to defend homeostasis during exercise.

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Enrique Colino, Jorge Garcia-Unanue, Leonor Gallardo, Carl Foster, Alejandro Lucia and Jose Luis Felipe

Surface properties can influence endurance running performance. 1 – 3 Indeed, athletes adjust their leg stiffness when running on surfaces of differing mechanical properties, 4 , 5 resulting in subtle changes in lower-limb kinematic patterns, landing style, stride length, ground reaction force

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David C. Nieman, Courtney L. Capps, Christopher R. Capps, Zack L. Shue and Jennifer E. McBride

-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial was to determine if ingestion of a supplement containing a tomato complex with lycopene, phytoene, and phytofluene (T-LPP) during a 4-week period would attenuate inflammation, muscle damage, and oxidative stress during recovery from a 2-hr running bout that

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Benjamin Pageaux, Jean Theurel and Romuald Lepers

Prolonged whole-body exercise, such as running or cycling, is well known to induce a decrease in maximal force produced by the knee extensors (ie, muscle fatigue). 1 – 5 This decrease in force production capacity is caused by an inability of the central nervous system to maximally recruit the

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Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga and Stefano Lazzer

Purpose:

To investigate changes in running mechanics during a 6-h running race.

Methods:

Twelve ultraendurance runners (age 41.9 ± 5.8 y, body mass 68.3 ± 12.6 kg, height 1.72 ± 0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874-m flat loops as possible in 6 h. Running speed, contact time (t c), and aerial time (t a) were measured in the first lap and every 30 ± 2 min during the race. Peak vertical ground-reaction force (F max), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the center of mass (Δz), leg-length change (ΔL), vertical stiffness (k vert), and leg stiffness (k leg) were then estimated.

Results:

Mean distance covered by the athletes during the race was 62.9 ± 7.9 km. Compared with the 1st lap, running speed decreased significantly from 4 h 30 min onward (mean –5.6% ± 0.3%, P < .05), while t c increased after 4 h 30 min of running, reaching the maximum difference after 5 h 30 min (+6.1%, P = .015). Conversely, k vert decreased after 4 h, reaching the lowest value after 5 h 30 min (–6.5%, P = .008); t a and F max decreased after 4 h 30 min through to the end of the race (mean –29.2% and –5.1%, respectively, P < .05). Finally, SL decreased significantly (–5.1%, P = .010) during the last hour of the race.

Conclusions:

Most changes occurred after 4 h continuous self-paced running, suggesting a possible time threshold that could affect performance regardless of absolute running speed.

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

et al., 2017b ). Although GIS occurs across a wide range of exercise types and durations, its incidence is substantially greater as the exercise duration increases ( Costa et al., 2017b ), particularly while running ( Pfeiffer et al., 2012 ) and in hot ambient conditions ( Snipe & Costa, 2018

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Nicolas Berryman, Iñigo Mujika, Denis Arvisais, Marie Roubeix, Carl Binet and Laurent Bosquet

described as a percentage of VO 2 max or maximal heart rate. 3 , 4 In recent years, however, convincing evidence has emerged indicating that strength training may also have a positive impact on middle- and long-distance performance (running, cycling, cross-country skiing) and its key determinants for

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Georgia M. Black, Tim J. Gabbett, Richard D. Johnston, Geraldine Naughton, Michael H. Cole and Brian Dawson

reported between running intensity and number of interchanges across match-play in elite male footballers. 3 Moreover, these researchers demonstrated that in combination with increased rotations, players who performed better on the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) completed the match

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Volker Scheer, Tanja I. Janssen, Solveig Vieluf and Hans-Christian Heitkamp

Trail running is a popular sport that has recently been recognized by the International Association of the Athletics Federations as a new running discipline hosting its own trail world championships ( www.itra.org ). It is therefore of interest to athletes, coaches, and researchers to find training

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Billy T. Hulin, Tim J. Gabbett, Nathan J. Pickworth, Rich D. Johnston and David G. Jenkins

Injuries adversely affect team success, 1 financial revenue, 2 and performance appraisals of science and medicine staff in team sport. 3 In rugby league players, greater high-intensity intermittent running ability is associated with (1) a higher probability of completing more matches injury free