disease ( Kolotkin, Meter, & Williams, 2001 ). Rural women have a disproportionate rate of obesity-related behaviors, including inactivity and a high prevalence of associated chronic disease, when compared with their urban counterparts, and these behaviors contribute to a higher prevalence of late
Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger
Margaret McGladrey, Angela Carman, Christy Nuetzman and Nicole Peritore
The impact on personal health of living in a rural county in the United States has received great attention of late. A person’s place of residence can mean less than optimal access to healthy foods and safe venues for physical activity. Combining lack of access to conditions that support health
Patricia A. Hageman, Susan Noble Walker, Carol H. Pullen, Linda S. Boeckner and Maureen K. Oberdorfer
This study investigated physical activity and fitness of midlife and older rural women. Random-digit dialing was used to recruit 225 women (57.9 ± 5.6 years old). Self-reported activity (moderate activity, flexibility, and strength) and fitness (body composition, flexibility, strength, and estimated VO2max) were assessed. The women demonstrated low daily energy expenditure (30.74 ± 10.63 kcal · kg−1 · day−1) and estimated VO2max (20.12 ± 7.81 ml · kg−1 · min−1), with 51.5% reporting fair or poor health. Few women reported meeting Healthy People 2010 targets for moderate activity (43.1%), flexibility (28.9%), or strength (14.2%). When classified by estimated VO2max into three categories, differences were observed for body-mass index, percent body fat, sit and reach, and timed chair stands, with the poorest performance by those with low cardiorespiratory fitness. Adherence to Healthy People 2010 targets for moderate activity and strengthening was associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness. These rural women are targets for physical activity interventions because of their sedentary behaviors and low cardiorespiratory fitness.
Robert L. Newton, Hongmei Han, Melinda Sothern, Corby K. Martin, Larry S. Webber and Donald A. Williamson
To determine if there are differences in time spent in physical activity and sedentary behavior between rural African American and Caucasian children.
Children wore accelerometers for 3 weekdays. The students were randomly selected from a larger sample of children participating in a weight gain prevention intervention. Usable data were obtained from 272 of the 310 students who agreed to participate. The outcome data included counts per minute (CPM), time spent in moderate to vigorous (MVPA), light (LPA), and sedentary (SED) activity. The equation and cutoff used to analyze national accelerometry data were used for the current study.
The sample had an average age of 10.4 (1.1) years and 76% were African American. Lower SES African Americans had more CPM (P = .012) and spent more time in MVPA (P = .008) compared with middle SES African American and lower SES Caucasian children. Lower SES African American children also spent fewer minutes in SED activity (P = .044) compared with middle SES African American children.
These findings support recent results that also used objective activity measures. Children appeared less active and more sedentary than a national sample, warranting interventions in minority and rural populations.
Jim Dollman, Kevin Norton and Graeme Tucker
The aim of this study was to compare urban and rural South Australian primary schoolchildren on measures of anthropometry, fitness, and environmental mediators of physical activity. The sample was comprised of 445 urban and 205 rural boys and 423 urban and 158 rural girls, all age 10–11 yrs at the time of testing. After controlling for socioeconomic status and ethnicity, rural girls and boys were faster over 1.6 k than their urban counterparts while rural girls were also faster over 50 m. Rural residence independently predicted participation in organized activity, increasing involvement in club sport, and decreasing involvement in school sport. Rural children reported a greater likelihood of participating in two or more physical education classes per week. It is evident that urban and rural South Australia differ in ways which impact on fitness and physical activity patterns of upper primary age children.
Robert M. Ojiambo, Chris Easton, Jose A. Casajús, Kenn Konstabel, John J. Reilly and Yannis Pitsiladis
Urbanization affects lifestyles in the developing world but no studies have assessed the impact on objectively measured physical activity in children and adolescents from sub-Saharan Africa.
To compare objectively measured habitual physical activity, sedentary time, and indices of adiposity in adolescents from rural and urban areas of Kenya.
Physical activity and sedentary time were assessed by accelerometry for 5 consecutive days in 97 (50 female and 47 male) rural and 103 (52 female and 51 male) urban adolescents (mean age 13 ± 1 years). Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were used to assess adiposity.
Rural males spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) compared with urban males (68 ± 22 vs. 50 ± 17 min, respectively; P < .001). Similarly, Rural females spent more time in MVPA compared with urban females (62 ± 20 vs. 37 ± 20 min, respectively; P < .001). Furthermore, there were significant differences in daily sedentary time between rural and urban subjects. Residence (rural vs. urban) significantly (P < .001) influenced BMI z-score (R 2 = .46).
Rural Kenyan adolescents are significantly more physically active (and less sedentary) and have lower indices of adiposity compared with urban adolescents and this is a likely refection of the impact of urbanization on lifestyle in Kenya.
Kenneth E. Mobily, Jon H. Lemke, Greg A. Drube, Robert B. Wallace, David K. Leslie and Ellen Weissinger
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between attitude toward physical activity and exercise practices among a large, well-defined population of rural mid western elderly. The frequency of participation in exercise was a composite across three questions regarding physical activity. Intensity of exercise was also considered. The data were analyzed according to a weighted least-squares approach to categorical data. The resulting chisquare goodness-of-fit model was significant and replicated the exercise behavior of the subjects. A significant main effect for gender and a significant age × attitude interaction was observed. The main effect for gender revealed that, for any age × attitude combination, males were more apt to participate at a given exercise level. However, age mediated the influence of attitude on exercise. Older age had a more detrimental effect on exercise behavior if attitude toward exercise was positive.
Natalie Kružliaková, Paul A. Estabrooks, Wen You, Valisa Hedrick, Kathleen Porter, Michaela Kiernan and Jamie Zoellner
took place in an 8-county region in rural, Appalachian southwest Virginia. This area is classified as medically underserved and has considerable socioeconomic inequalities, which predisposes residents to PA disparities. 44 , 45 Within this 8-county region, data from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
Robert Eley, Robert Bush and Wendy Brown
Interventions addressing chronic disease through physical activity are hampered by the low evidence base from rural areas. The purpose of the study was to provide information which may contribute to the development of future policy and strategy applicable to rural Queensland.
Six diverse rural shires were chosen. A mixed-method design included more than 100 interviews with community representatives; surveys to 3000 community members; audits of facilities, amenities, and other relevant resources in each shire; and detailed observation during repeated site visits.
Half the respondents failed to meet Australian physical activity guidelines and 1 in 5 reported no activity. Queensland’s rural communities offer good access to a wide variety of structured and nonstructured activities. Some barriers to physical activity (eg, family commitments) are similar to those reported from urban areas; however, others including climate, culture of exercise, and community leadership are unique to the rural environment.
Unique characteristics of rural environments and populations affect engagement in physical activity. Promotion of healthy lifestyle in rural environments need to be informed by local context and not merely extrapolated from urban situations. Attention must be paid to specific local circumstances which may affect implementation, adoption and participation.
Alain P. Gauthier, Michel Lariviere, Raymond Pong, Susan Snelling and Nancy Young
Researchers have recently expressed their concern for the health of Francophones and rural dwellers in Canada. Their levels of physical activity may explain part of the observed differences. However, little is known about the physical activity levels of these 2 groups. The purpose of this study was to assess levels of physical activity among a sample of Francophones and rural dwellers. The study also assessed the associations of various types of physical activity to measures of health status.
A quota-based convenience sample of 256 adults from Northern Ontario was surveyed using the IPAQ and the SF-12.
There were no significant differences in activity levels between language groups (P = .06) or geographical groups (P = .22) on the combined dependent variables based on MANOVA. Leisure-time physical activity scores were consistently associated to better physical component summary scores of the SF-12.
Implications for practice include that leisure-time physical activities have been at the forefront of public health promotion, and our findings support this approach. Further, population specific interventions are indeed important, however, within this Canadian context when identifying target groups one must look beyond sociocultural status or geographical location.