This paper extends previous research examining salary differentials by race/ethnicity in major league baseball. Our analysis adds to previous research by using career statistics for both hitters and pitchers, and, for the pitcher category, both starters and relievers. We also examined race/ethnicity two ways: (a) according to the standard three categories of white, black, and Hispanic and (b) according to five categories—white, black U.S. born, black foreign born, Hispanic U.S. born, and Hispanic foreign born. Using analysis of variance and regression analysis we found that race/ethnicity did not play a statistically significant role in salary determination, no matter how race/ethnicity was coded.
Dean A. Purdy, Wilbert M. Leonard II and D. Stanley Eitzen
French Canadians in professional ice hockey perform generally better than English Canadian or American players. This is particularly clear at the position of defenseman. Stacking in the National Hockey League (NHL) is also observed, with very few French Canadians playing defense. Four theses are presented to explain these two phenomena. The first three theses—based on differences in the style of play, the cultural costs of moving to an NHL city, and the proficiency of the language of work (English)—all incorporate convincing arguments but fail to predict further established facts. Hiring discrimination best explains all of the facts that have been gathered by students of ice hockey. Except in the case of defensemen, little or no salary discrimination against Francophones could be identified, although their pay is determined differently. The collection of a wide variety of data suggests that favoritism by scouts substantially affects the outcome of hiring decisions, especially at the positions for which assessment is highly uncertain and subjective, that is, the position of defense.
Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Emily Sterling and Jim Mench
Women athletic trainers leave the profession of athletic training after the age of 28. The reasons appear complex, but are not well defined in the literature, as many studies examine intent, not actual attrition. We used a descriptive qualitative study with a general inductive approach. Twelve females (4 single with no children, 5 married with children, and 3 married with no children) who left the profession of athletic training between the ages of 28 and 35 participated. Attrition from athletic training for our participants was triggered by organizational, individual, and sociocultural factors. These can be broken down to four main themes of family values, work-life imbalance, sexism, and financial concerns.
Stacy Warner and Emily S. Sparvero
.g., Ryan & Deci, 2000 ). Previous research into extrinsic motivators have examined salary on performance (e.g., Koschmann, 2017 ; Torgler & Schmidt, 2007 ), an upcoming contract on performance (e.g., Frick, 2011 ; White & Sheldon, 2014 ), and recently signed contract on performance (e.g., Berri
Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, Chad M. Killian, K. Andrew R. Richards and Jesse L. Rhoades
over the course of their careers and reported annual salaries of approximately $23,000. Despite Lawson’s ( 1991 ) plea for the examination of teacher educators nearly two decades ago, the study of PETE faculty members received limited attention in the literature during the late 1990s and early 2000s
Janet B. Parks
This study investigated the employment status of the alumni of a large undergraduate sport management program. Information was collected and analyzed relative to demographics, graduate school status, placement strategies, current positions, and salaries. Data treatment included descriptive statistics and chi-square. Statistically significant differences were found (a) between women and men relative to placement strategies, (b) between women and men relative to salaries, (c) between salaries of the major employment classifications, and (d) between salaries in positions related to sport management and those unrelated to sport management. Recommendations included encouragement of further investigation of the significant differences found in this study, utilization of the findings in career education, additional research focusing on career development rather than on employment status, and the use of more sophisticated research designs and more powerful statistical analyses in future studies of sport management career paths.
Noni Zaharia, Anastasios Kaburakis and David Pierce
The growth of sport management programs housed in (or with formal curriculum-based ties to) a school of business indicates more academic institutions are reconsidering sport management as a business-oriented field. Thus, research is necessary regarding benchmarking information on the state of these academic programs. The purpose of this study is to explore trends on administration, housing, accreditation, faculty performance indicators and research requirements, as well as salaries for faculty and alumni of such programs. Data were submitted by 74 department chairs and program directors employed in U.S. business schools featuring sport management programs. Results indicate that the majority of sport business programs are part of an interdisciplinary department; COSMA accreditation is largely viewed as redundant; and, depending on business schools’ accreditation, variability exists concerning faculty performance measures and research impact, as well as faculty and alumni salaries. These findings suggest considerable progress of sport management programs within business schools.
This article uses a simple approach to address the issue of how revenue sharing in professional sports leagues can affect the allocation of free agent players to teams. To affect the allocation of free agents, the imposition of revenue sharing must alter the ranking of bidding teams in terms of maximum salary offers. Two types of revenue sharing systems are considered: traditional gate revenue sharing and pooled revenue sharing. The article suggests that team rankings for ability to pay are not affected by pooled revenue sharing, however the distribution of player salaries will be affected asymmetrically. Traditional gate revenue sharing can alter the ability to pay rankings for teams, depending upon playing schedules and the closeness of revenues between closely ranked teams. Revenue data for two professional sports leagues provide evidence in favor of the model predictions.