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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

previously been validated in swimmers. 8 Salivary biomarkers are easily accessible and noninvasive measures which can be quantified quickly and repeatedly. 9 Saliva contains both immunity and stress biomarkers, including immunoglobulin A (IgA), alpha-amylase (AA), and cortisol, all of which have been shown

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Caoimhe Tiernan, Mark Lyons, Tom Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles Warrington

in saliva, serum (blood), and urine. Salivary cortisol has been found to be a marker of physiological stress and may provide an understanding of physiological response from training and matches in team sports. 7 – 10 Saliva collection is noninvasive, time efficient, and easy to collect, indicating

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Joshua Strahorn, Carmen Colomer, Andrew McKune, Christian Cook and Kate Pumpa

delivered in person by a respected former player of the club. A baseline saliva was collected prior to consuming any food or drink on day 1 and assayed for testosterone and cortisol for 2 reasons: first, this is recommended for this type of hormone research, 9 and second because, at this time point (5 days

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Chun-Chih Wang, Brandon Alderman, Chih-Han Wu, Lin Chi, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu and Yu-Kai Chang

(%) were used as dependent measures. Saliva Sampling and Assay Saliva samples were collected using a commercially available Salivette kit (Sarstedt, Nümbrecht, Germany). There are some advantages to measure cortisol in saliva compared with blood. For instance, this method of assessment is noninvasive

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Travis Anderson, Amy R. Lane and Anthony C. Hackney

-related exercise. Cortisol Awakening Response Prior to involvement in the study, subjects were given instructions for proper guidelines for saliva collection and were required to demonstrate proficiency of these techniques by actively demonstrating a simulated waking process and sample collection. Throughout the

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

commencement of the camp, or prior to commencement of each day, as to what the day ahead entailed, and it was assumed that there would be psychologically stressful elements, both in anticipation of and within the activities themselves. During the 4 days of training camp, participants provided a saliva sample

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Francisco Tavares, Martyn Beaven, Júlia Teles, Dane Baker, Phil Healey, Tiaki B. Smith and Matthew Driller

their normal posttraining routine and remained at the training facilities until all athletes in the CWI group completed their CWI protocol. Questionnaires and countermovement tests (CMJ) were implemented on the mornings of days 1 and 4 for each of the 3 weeks. Saliva samples were collected prior to any

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

accordance with their dietary allocation (1.5 vs. 0.0 g/kg CHO for HIGH and LOW, respectively); 25 min later, they provided a saliva sample. Thirty minutes postsnack, the athletes commenced their planned LIT task. The 60-min cycle trial (Day 2) was performed in the laboratory on the athlete’s own bicycle

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

fatigue and excessive stress after periods of IT have been sought. This may be particularly pertinent in heterogeneous cohorts and/or complex, multimodal sports, such as paratriathlon. Due to the effect of IT on the hypothalamic axes, 4 and their ease of measurement in saliva, 5 resting levels of

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Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly

after the second training session. Perceptions of well-being and recovery, saliva, and blood samples were collected periodically, and neuromuscular performance and exercise capacity were reassessed 5 hours postexercise. Figure  1 provides an experimental overview diagram. Figure 1 —Experimental