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Christian J. Cook, Liam P. Kilduff and C. Martyn Beaven


To examine the effects of moderate-load exercise with and without blood-flow restriction (BFR) on strength, power, and repeated-sprint ability, along with acute and chronic salivary hormonal parameters.


Twenty male semiprofessional rugby union athletes were randomized to a lower-body BFR intervention (an occlusion cuff inflated to 180 mmHg worn intermittently on the proximal thighs) or a control intervention that trained without occlusion in a crossover design. Experimental sessions were performed 3 times a week for 3 wk with 5 sets of 5 repetitions of bench press, leg squat, and pull-ups performed at 70% of 1-repetition maximum.


Greater improvements were observed (occlusion training vs control) in bench press (5.4 ± 2.6 vs 3.3 ± 1.4 kg), squat (7.8 ± 2.1 vs 4.3 ± 1.4 kg), maximum sprint time (−0.03 ± 0.03 vs –0.01 ± 0.02 s), and leg power (168 ± 105 vs 68 ± 50 W). Greater exercise-induced salivary testosterone (ES 0.84–0.61) and cortisol responses (ES 0.65–0.20) were observed after the occlusion intervention sessions compared with the nonoccluded controls; however, the acute cortisol increases were attenuated across the training block.


Occlusion training can potentially improve the rate of strength-training gains and fatigue resistance in trained athletes, possibly allowing greater gains from lower loading that could be of benefit during high training loads, in competitive seasons, or in a rehabilitative setting. The clear improvement in bench-press strength resulting from lower-body occlusion suggests a systemic effect of BFR training.

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

the current findings, that the effects of IT on salivary hormones are not significantly disparate to AB athletes. It has previously been demonstrated that TL or training duration displays an inverse relationship to sIgA measures over a prolonged period in Paralympic athletes. 10 , 16 However, during

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Tony Adebero, Brandon John McKinlay, Alexandros Theocharidis, Zach Root, Andrea R. Josse, Panagiota Klentrou and Bareket Falk

, as well as in baseline hormone levels, were analyzed using independent t tests. A 3-way (group by time by fluid) repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the serum and salivary hormone levels in men and boys at rest and postexercise. In the event of a significant interaction

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

effect, F = 91.24, p  < .0001). Group × time interactions are also reported as indicated: # (Carbonyl, F = 3.37, p  = .06) and ## (SOD, F = 4.34, p  < .05). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVAs and are presented as mean ± SE. Salivary Hormonal Responses to Exercise Salivary testosterone decreased (−55

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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

competition, reflecting both race and resting day measures, to depict the salivary hormone response when competition stress would be highest. Data Collection Salivary Biomarkers Saliva samples were collected in the morning, 30 minutes after waking, before breakfast and before any physical exercise had been

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Bruno Marrier, Alexandre Durguerian, Julien Robineau, Mounir Chennaoui, Fabien Sauvet, Aurélie Servonnet, Julien Piscione, Bertrand Mathieu, Alexis Peeters, Mathieu Lacome, Jean-Benoit Morin and Yann Le Meur

players and relationships with salivary hormones . J Strength Cond Res . 2009 ; 23 : 2046 – 2053 . PubMed ID: 19855329 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b73c19 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b73c19 19855329 27. Crewther BT , Kilduff LP , Cook CJ , et al . Relationships between salivary free testosterone and

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Filipe M. Clemente, Ana F. Silva, Cain C.T. Clark, Daniele Conte, João Ribeiro, Bruno Mendes and Ricardo Lima

Committee consensus statement on load in sport and risk of injury . Br J Sports Med . 2016 ; 50 : 1030 – 1041 . PubMed ID: 27535989 doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096581 27535989 23. Madrigal LA , Wilson PB . Salivary hormone and anxiety responses to free-throw shooting competition in collegiate

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

.05.009 22609482 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.05.009 13. Papacosta E , Nassis GP , Gleeson M . Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition . J Sports Sci . 2016 ; 34 ( 13 ): 1281 – 1287 . PubMed ID: 26584022 doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1111521 10

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Caleb D. Bazyler, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Ashley A. Kavanaugh, John J. McMahon, Paul Comfort and Michael H. Stone

): 3567 – 3570 . PubMed ID: 24936904 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000572 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000572 14. Papacosta E , Gleeson M , Nassis GP . Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes . J Strength Cond Res . 2013 ; 27 ( 9 ): 2569 – 2580

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Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

-0034-1398680 Tauler , P. , Martinez , S. , Moreno , C. , Martínez , P. , & Aguilo , A. ( 2014 ). Changes in salivary hormones, immunoglobulin A, and C-reactive protein in response to ultra-endurance exercises . Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 39 ( 5 ), 560 – 565 PubMed ID