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Mark Russell, Aden King, Richard. M. Bracken, Christian. J. Cook, Thibault Giroud and Liam. P. Kilduff

Purpose:

To assess the effects of different modes of morning (AM) exercise on afternoon (PM) performance and salivary hormone responses in professional rugby union players.

Methods:

On 4 occasions (randomized, crossover design), 15 professional rugby players provided AM (~8 AM) and PM (~2 PM) saliva samples before PM assessments of countermovement-jump height, reaction time, and repeated-sprint ability. Control (passive rest), weights (bench press: 5 × 10 repetitions, 75% 1-repetition maximum, 90-s intraset recovery), cycling (6 × 6-s maximal sprint cycling, 7.5% body mass load, 54-s intraset recovery), and running (6 × 40-m maximal sprints, 20-s intraset recovery) interventions preceded (~5 h) PM testing.

Results:

PM sprint performance improved (P < .05) after weights (>0.15 ± 0.19 s, >2.04% ± 2.46%) and running (>0.15 ± 0.17 s, >2.12% ± 2.22%) but not cycling (P > .05). PM jump height increased after cycling (0.012 ± 0.009 m, 2.31% ± 1.76%, P < .001) and running (0.020 ± 0.009 m, 3.90% ± 1.79%, P < .001) but not weights (P = .936). Reaction time remained unchanged between trials (P = .379). Relative to control (131 ± 21 pg/mL), PM testosterone was greater in weights (21 ± 23 pg/mL, 17% ± 18%, P = .002) and running (28 ± 26 pg/mL, 22% ± 20%, P = .001) but not cycling (P = .072). Salivary cortisol was unaffected by AM exercise (P = .540).

Conclusions:

All modes of AM exercise improved at least 1 marker of PM performance, but running appeared the most beneficial to professional rugby union players. A rationale therefore exists for preceding PM competition with AM exercise.

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Tony Adebero, Brandon John McKinlay, Alexandros Theocharidis, Zach Root, Andrea R. Josse, Panagiota Klentrou and Bareket Falk

, as well as in baseline hormone levels, were analyzed using independent t tests. A 3-way (group by time by fluid) repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to examine the serum and salivary hormone levels in men and boys at rest and postexercise. In the event of a significant interaction

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Ben T. Stephenson, Christof A. Leicht, Keith Tolfrey and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

the current findings, that the effects of IT on salivary hormones are not significantly disparate to AB athletes. It has previously been demonstrated that TL or training duration displays an inverse relationship to sIgA measures over a prolonged period in Paralympic athletes. 10 , 16 However, during

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

effect, F = 91.24, p  < .0001). Group × time interactions are also reported as indicated: # (Carbonyl, F = 3.37, p  = .06) and ## (SOD, F = 4.34, p  < .05). Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVAs and are presented as mean ± SE. Salivary Hormonal Responses to Exercise Salivary testosterone decreased (−55

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Ciara Sinnott-O’Connor, Thomas M. Comyns, Alan M. Nevill and Giles D. Warrington

competition, reflecting both race and resting day measures, to depict the salivary hormone response when competition stress would be highest. Data Collection Salivary Biomarkers Saliva samples were collected in the morning, 30 minutes after waking, before breakfast and before any physical exercise had been

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Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles

-0034-1398680 Tauler , P. , Martinez , S. , Moreno , C. , Martínez , P. , & Aguilo , A. ( 2014 ). Changes in salivary hormones, immunoglobulin A, and C-reactive protein in response to ultra-endurance exercises . Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 39 ( 5 ), 560 – 565 PubMed ID

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Benjamin G. Serpell, Barry G. Horgan, Carmen M.E. Colomer, Byron Field, Shona L. Halson and Christian J. Cook

.05.009 22609482 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.05.009 13. Papacosta E , Nassis GP , Gleeson M . Salivary hormones and anxiety in winners and losers of an international judo competition . J Sports Sci . 2016 ; 34 ( 13 ): 1281 – 1287 . PubMed ID: 26584022 doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1111521 10

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Filipe M. Clemente, Ana F. Silva, Cain C.T. Clark, Daniele Conte, João Ribeiro, Bruno Mendes and Ricardo Lima

-2016-096581 27535989 23. Madrigal LA , Wilson PB . Salivary hormone and anxiety responses to free-throw shooting competition in collegiate female basketball players . J Clin Sport Psychol . 2017 ; 11 : 240 – 253 . doi:10.1123/jcsp.2016-0034 10.1123/jcsp.2016-0034 24. Thorpe RT , Strudwick

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Bruno Marrier, Alexandre Durguerian, Julien Robineau, Mounir Chennaoui, Fabien Sauvet, Aurélie Servonnet, Julien Piscione, Bertrand Mathieu, Alexis Peeters, Mathieu Lacome, Jean-Benoit Morin and Yann Le Meur

players and relationships with salivary hormones . J Strength Cond Res . 2009 ; 23 : 2046 – 2053 . PubMed ID: 19855329 doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b73c19 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b73c19 19855329 27. Crewther BT , Kilduff LP , Cook CJ , et al . Relationships between salivary free testosterone and

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Caleb D. Bazyler, Satoshi Mizuguchi, Ashley A. Kavanaugh, John J. McMahon, Paul Comfort and Michael H. Stone

): 3567 – 3570 . PubMed ID: 24936904 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000572 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000572 14. Papacosta E , Gleeson M , Nassis GP . Salivary hormones, IgA, and performance during intense training and tapering in judo athletes . J Strength Cond Res . 2013 ; 27 ( 9 ): 2569 – 2580