of time at school, and schools have been identified as environments that can influence health behaviors such as physical activity both at school and beyond the school environment ( Ball, Timperio, & Crawford, 2006 ). More importantly, they provide equitable access to physical development
Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor
Javier Molina-García and Ana Queralt
execution in only 1 city, meaning that the results may not generalize. This study highlights the importance of assessing children’s home and school environments when analyzing ACS behavior. The results showed that home-neighborhood walkability and school-neighborhood SES were related to ACS. Our findings
Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen and Jan Seghers
Based on the self-determination theory, this study investigated the mediating role of the satisfaction of the three psychological needs (need for competence, relatedness and autonomy) in the relation between need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and autonomous motivation to engage in PE and between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation to engage in PE. Data were collected from 2418 6th grade children. Analyses were performed using bootstrapping. The results showed that perceptions of competence and autonomy mediated the relation between need support from the PE teacher and autonomous motivation. Moreover, the perception of autonomy also mediated the relation between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation. These findings suggest that not only the PE teacher but also the physical school environment is able to promote autonomous motivation by satisfying the need for autonomy.
John B. Bartholomew
Numerous interventions have been designed to modify children's physical activity and eating behaviors. While early research centered on the individual as the target of intervention, more recent work targets change in the environment. These studies have consistently supported the importance of environmental contributors to both physical activity and eating behavior, but little research has considered those who are responsible for implementing environmental change. For example, if we expect school environments to support activity and healthy eating, we must consider the motivation of school administrators to affect change. This review will present examples of an ecological approach to behavior change along with recent data to support this approach.
Ralph Maddison, Samantha Marsh, Erica Hinckson, Scott Duncan, Sandra Mandic, Rachael Taylor and Melody Smith
In this article, we report the grades for the second New Zealand Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth, which represents a synthesis of available New Zealand evidence across 9 core indicators.
An expert panel of physical activity (PA) researchers collated and reviewed available nationally representative survey data between March and May 2016. In the absence of new data, (2014–2016) regional level data were used to inform the direction of existing grades. Grades were assigned based on the percentage of children and youth meeting each indicator: A is 81% to 100%; B is 61% to 80%; C is 41% to 60%, D is 21% to 40%; F is 0% to 20%; INC is Incomplete data.
Overall PA, Active Play, and Government Initiatives were graded B-; Community Environments was graded B; Sport Participation and School Environment received a C+; Sedentary Behaviors and Family/Peer Support were graded C; and Active Travel was graded C-.
Overall PA participation was satisfactory for young children but not for youth. The grade for PA decreased slightly from the 2014 report card; however, there was an improvement in grades for built and school environments, which may support regional and national-level initiatives for promoting PA.
Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Klaus Gebel and David Revalds Lubans
According to social-cognitive theory (SCT), self-efficacy affects health behavior both directly and indirectly by influencing how individuals perceive their environment. This study examines whether perceptions of home and school environment mediate the association between self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in adolescent girls.
Baseline data from the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT) was used for this study. Grade 8 female students (n = 357) were recruited from 12 secondary schools located in low-income communities in the Hunter Region, New South Wales, Australia. PA was assessed using accelerometers, and sedentary behavior by self-report and accelerometers. Self-reported measures were used for perceived home and school environment and self-efficacy. Multilevel regression models were calculated to determine if the perceived environment mediated the relationship between self-efficacy with both PA and sedentary behavior.
The perceptions of the school and home environment did not mediate the relationship between PA self-efficacy and PA behavior or sedentary behavior.
The mediated models were not supported for PA or sedentary behavior. However, other results of this paper may be helpful for future theory development and practice. More research is needed to understand behaviors in unique populations such as this.
N. Kay Covington, Darlene A. Kluka and Phyllis A. Love
This investigation compared the percentage of body fat obtained using the bioelectrical impedance technique and the anthropometric technique on a black pediatric population consisting of 196 subjects, 93 girls and 103 boys, ages 5-11 years. Subjects were measured utilizing the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer-103 (RJL Systems, Inc.). In order to simulate a realistic school environment, protocol was deliberately not followed. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at two sites: triceps and medial calf. The anthropometric and BIA percentages of body fat were compared using the Pearson product-moment coefficient or correlation and an ANOVA. The overall relationship between the groups was .809. Use of the BIA appears to lead to an overestimation of fatness in black children.
Jihoun An and Samuel R. Hodge
The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to explore the experiences and meaning of parental involvement in physical education from the perspectives of the parents of students with developmental disabilities. The stories of four mothers of elementary aged children (3 boys, 1 girl), two mothers and one couple (mother and father) of secondary-aged youth (1 girl, 2 boys) with developmental disabilities, were gathered by using interviews, photographs, school documents, and the researcher’s journal. Bronfenbrenner’s (2005) ecological system theory provided a conceptual framework to interpret the findings of this inquiry. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis: being an advocate for my child, understanding the big picture, and collaborative partnerships undeveloped in GPE. The findings lend additional support to the need for establishing collaborative partnerships in physical education between home and school environments (An & Goodwin, 2007; Tekin, 2011).
Douglas E. Long, Lisa M. Gaetke, Stephen D. Perry, Mark G. Abel and Jody L. Clasey
The purpose of this study was to descriptively compare the physical activity and dietary intake of public school (PSC) versus home schooled children (HSC). Potential parental and home influences were also examined. Thirty six matched pairs of public school-home school children aged 7–11 years participated in this study. Each participant wore an activity monitor and recorded their dietary intake concurrently for seven consecutive days. PSC had significantly more total and weekday steps, and spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity compared with HSC. There were no differences in dietary intake between the two groups. These results suggest differences in physical activity between PSC and HSC and encourage further study of public and home school environments, in relation to the obesity epidemic.
Heather Elizabeth Erwin
Physical activity behavior is an important aspect of overall health, and it is important to understand determinants of physical activity in order for children to accumulate the recommended levels. The ecological-systems theory describes the relationship between individuals and their contexts, suggesting that environment affects physical activity behaviors. Researchers should measure children’s access to physical activity to determine environmental influences. At the time of data collection, however, no reliable questionnaires had been created for measuring children’s access to physical activity.
Students from grades 4 and 5 completed a physical activity environmental-access questionnaire on 2 occasions, approximately 7 to 10 days apart.
The questionnaire appeared appropriate for children age 9 to 12. The lowest reliability was found with items located in the school environment.
This questionnaire is a suitable tool for examining children’s physical activity supports and inhibitors.