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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Angela Coppola, Thomas Curran, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Luc Martin and Kathleen Wilson

’s functionality but also engaged in self-criticism. To negotiate these perceptions, the women placed less emphasis on appearance and focused on health and physical functioning. There was, however, evidence that they made efforts to manage their appearance in many ways, such as by styling their hair, using

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Megan S. Patterson and Patricia Goodson

, Meyer C . Perfectionism and compulsive exercise among female exercisers: high personal standards or self-criticism? Pers Individ Dif . 2010 ; 49 : 3 – 7 . doi:10.1016/j.paid.2010.02.024 10.1016/j.paid.2010.02.024 80. Taranis L , Meyer C . Associations between specific components of

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Tracy C. Donachie, Andrew P. Hill and Daniel J. Madigan

of self-punishment, self-belittlement, and self-criticism ( Flett, Hewitt, Nepon, & Besser, 2018 ). In accord, rather than energizing action, perfectionistic cognitions impede perceptions of coping resources and contribute to negative emotions ( Flett et al., 2018 ). Of interest to the current study

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Gert-Jan De Muynck, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Jochen Delrue, Nathalie Aelterman, Leen Haerens and Bart Soenens

, 2009 ). Whereas positive self-talk encompasses self-directed statements to generate energy, to give oneself instructions, or to build confidence, negative self-talk involves messages expressing self-criticism, worries, somatic complaints, and thoughts about disengagement. Situational factors, such as

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Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill and Howard K. Hall

Likert scale (1 =  strongly disagree to 7 =  strongly agree ). The stem was adapted to ensure that participants focussed on the statements in relation to their soccer participation (e.g., “In football…”). The SOP subscale reflects exceedingly high standards from one’s self, accompanied by harsh self-criticism

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Robert C. Hilliard, Lorenzo A. Redmond and Jack C. Watson II

positive effects for well-being, cognitive states, and self-criticism ( Mosewich, Crocker, Kowalski, & DeLongis, 2013 ; Mosewich, Kowalski, Sabiston, Sedgwick, & Tracy, 2011 ). Interpretation of the above results suggest that self-compassion might play a role in reducing negative cognitions, such as those

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Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Molly Curcio

health ( Matusek & Knudson, 2009 ). Activism or spiritualty reportedly moved participants’ focus away from internal self-criticism, providing a new sense of identity and a commitment to a larger purpose, which allowed them to leave the ED behind. Next, through analysis of 31 autobiographies by authors

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Pooja Somasundaram and Alexandra M. Burgess

, mistakes, or imperfections as total failures ( Frost et al., 1990 ). Therefore, researchers have surmised that for individuals high in evaluative concerns, any shortcoming in their ability to achieve their ideal, desired body shape may trigger self-criticism and feelings of failure ( Hewitt et al., 1995

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Jens Van Lier and Filip Raes

development of depressive symptoms . Journal of Personality, 66 , 607 – 619 . PubMed ID: 9728418 doi:10.1111/1467-6494.00026 10.1111/1467-6494.00026 Carver , C.S. , & Ganellen , R.J. ( 1983 ). Depression and components of self-punitiveness: High standards, self-criticism, and overgeneralization