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Henning Plessner

Several studies have found that gymnasts’ placement in within-team order affects their scores (e.g., Scheer & Ansorge, 1975). This effect has been explained in terms of judges’ expectations yielding a cognitive confirmation. In the present study, the influence of expectations on gymnastics judging was conceptualized within the schema approach of social cognition research. Three factors are addressed that contribute to the understanding of the placement effect: task difficulty, social situation, and process stages. In an experiment, 48 gymnastics judges scored videotaped routines of a men’s team competition. Target routines appeared either in the first or the fifth position of within-team order. Depending on the difficulty of the judgment task, a significant placement effect was found. This effect resulted from biased encoding of single elements, as well as from heuristic judgment strategies. Results are discussed in reference to the practice of gymnastics judging.

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Matthias Bluemke, Ralf Brand, Geoffrey Schweizer and Daniela Kahlert

Models employed in exercise psychology highlight the role of reflective processes for explaining behavior change. However, as discussed in social cognition literature, information-processing models also consider automatic processes (dual-process models). To examine the relevance of automatic processing in exercise psychology, we used a priming task to assess the automatic evaluations of exercise stimuli in physically active sport and exercise majors (n = 32), physically active nonsport majors (n = 31), and inactive students (n = 31). Results showed that physically active students responded faster to positive words after exercise primes, whereas inactive students responded more rapidly to negative words. Priming task reaction times were successfully used to predict reported amounts of exercise in an ordinal regression model. Findings were obtained only with experiential items reflecting negative and positive consequences of exercise. The results illustrate the potential importance of dual-process models in exercise psychology.

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Lawrence R. Brawley and Kathleen A. Martin

Over the past three decades, an interface has developed between sport and social psychology, characterized primarily by commonly utilized concepts and theories. The list of social psychological benefits to sport psychology is lengthy and includes theory, hypotheses, research paradigms, general independent and dependent variables, methods, and measures. In this paper, the following areas of sport research are used to illustrate the interface between sport and social psychology: (a) social facilitation and cohesion as two social influence phenomena, (b) anxiety and goal orientations as personality moderators of social behavior, and (c) self-efficacy beliefs and attitudes as social cognitions relevant to motivated behavior. Each of these areas are discussed in terms of social psychology’s impact on its development as a line of research in sport and in terms of the recent contributions each has made in return to social psychology. The general nature of the interface of social and sport psychology is also discussed.

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David W. Eccles and Gershon Tenenbaum

The cognitive properties and processes of teams have not been considered in sport psychology research. These properties and processes extend beyond the sum of the cognitive properties and processes of the constituent members of the team to include factors unique to teams, such as team coordination and communication. A social-cognitive conceptual framework for the study of team coordination and communication is offered, based on research on social cognition and from industrial and organizational psychology. This is followed by a discussion of coordination and communication in expert teams. In addition, an overview of the type of methods that could be used to measure aspects of team coordination and communication in sport is provided. The framework and methods afford hypothesis generation for empirical research on coordination and communication in sport teams, a means to begin examining these constructs in sport, and a theoretical base with which to reconcile the resultant data.

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Ralf Brand, Gerhard Schmidt and Yvonne Schneeloch

In a study on penalty decisions in soccer, Plessner and Betsch (2001) refer to a social cognition framework and demonstrate that referees’ initial decisions exert an undesirable impact on later decisions. Mascarenhas, Collins, and Mortimer (2002) criticize this work for an error in the attribution of its findings. In their view, the referees’ efforts to manage games by permanently adjusting decisions to the actual flow of a game have been underestimated. In the present experiment, 113 elite (i.e., first and second league) basketball referees made decisions on videotaped contact situations. These were presented either in their original game sequence or as random successions of individual scenes. Results showed that referees in the condition with the removed sequential context awarded more rigorous sanctions than their colleagues. Findings are interpreted as an instance of empirical evidence for what Mascarenhas et al. (2002) have described as game management. It is argued that the idea of game management should be modeled and further explored within the theoretical concept of social information processing.

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. Souza * 8 2017 6 3 261 270 10.1123/kr.2016-0014 Scholarly Review Social Influence, Physical Activity, and Social Cognitions Among Adults With Physical Disability: A Meta-Analysis Jessie N. Stapleton * Diane E. Mack * Kathleen A. Martin Ginis * 8 2017 6 3 271 285 10.1123/kr.2016-0002 krj

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Eberhardt * Andrea Chmitorz * Eva Schaller * 10 2010 32 5 674 693 10.1123/jsep.32.5.674 Predictors of Doping Intentions in Elite-Level Athletes: A Social Cognition Approach Lambros Lazuras * Vassileios Barkoukis * Angelos Rodafinos * Haralambos Tzorbatzoudis * 10 2010 32 5 694 710 10.1123/jsep

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Tanya R. Berry, Wendy M. Rodgers, Alison Divine and Craig Hall

. PubMed ID: 16834486 doi:10.1037/0022-3514.91.1.154 10.1037/0022-3514.91.1.154 Carlston , D. ( 2010 ). Models of implicit and explicit mental representation . In B. Gawronski & B.K. Payne (Eds.), Handbook of implicit social cognition: Measurement, theory, and applications (pp.  38 – 61

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Zachary Zenko and Panteleimon Ekkekakis

, and control in social cognition . In R.S. Wyer & T.K. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition: Basic processes; Applications (pp.  1 – 40 ). Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum . Bechara , A. ( 2004 ). The role of emotion in decision-making: Evidence from neurological patients with

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Navin Kaushal, Ryan E. Rhodes, John T. Meldrum and John C. Spence

populations ( Spence & Lee, 2003 ), behavior change at an individual level remains necessary ( Community Guide, 2016 ). Such interventions frequently employ social-cognition models that attempt to build perceived capability to enact PA and increase the expected positive outcomes of PA through volitional