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Elaine M. Blinde and Lisa R. McClung

The impact of participation in recreational activities on perceptions of the physical and social selves of individuals with physical disabilities was explored. Eleven women (ages 19 to 54) and 12 men (ages 20 to 36) participated in individualized recreational programs including horseback riding, swimming, fitness, weightlifting, racquetball, bowling, tennis, fishing, walking, and tai chi. Tape-recorded interviews were conducted with these individuals following participation. Content analyses of the interview responses indicated that participation impacted four aspects of the physical self: (a) experiencing the body in new ways, (b) enhancing perceptions of physical attributes, (c) redefining physical capabilities, and (d) increasing perceived confidence to pursue new physical activities. Modifications in respondents’ perceptions of the social self were reflected in two themes: (a) expanding social interactions and experiences, and (b) initiating social activities in other contexts. The gains discussed by respondents suggest that individuals developed an enhanced sense of control in both their physical and social lives.

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Helena Seymour, Greg Reid and Gordon A. Bloom

Social interaction and development of friendships between children with and without a disability are often proposed as potential outcomes of inclusive education. Physical activity specialists assert that exercise and sport environments may be conducive to social and friendship outcomes. This study investigated friendship in inclusive physical education from the perspective of students with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) physical disabilities. All participants attended a reversely integrated school and were interviewed using a semistructured, open-ended format. An adapted version of Weiss, Smith, and Theeboom’s (1996) interview guide exploring perceptions of peer relationships in the sport domain was used. Four conceptual categories emerged from the analysis: development of friendship, best friend, preferred physical activities and outcomes, and dealing with disability. The results demonstrated the key characteristics of best friends and the influential role they play.

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Marcel Bouffard, E. Jane Watkinson, Linda P. Thompson, Janice L. Causgrove Dunn and Sandy K.E. Romanow

An activity deficit hypothesis was posited that children with movement difficulties are less physically active during recess than age- and gender-matched controls without movement difficulties. Criteria used in identifying children with movement difficulties were (a) a score of at least 4 on the Test of Motor Impairment, (b) regular physical education student, and (c) age 80 to 109 months. An observational study was conducted over a 2-month period in recess settings with 52 subjects. Findings revealed that during recess time, children with movement difficulties were vigorously active less often, played less often with large playground equipment, were not observable for significantly more time, and spent less time in positive social interactions with others of their own gender. Accordingly, it was concluded that the data support the activity deficit hypothesis.

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Kimberly Place and Samuel R. Hodge

The purpose was to describe the behaviors of eighth-grade students with and without physical disabilities relative to social inclusion in a general physical education program. Participants were 3 girls with physical disabilities and 19 classmates (11 females, 8 males) without disabilities. The method was case study. Data for a 6-week softball unit were collected using videotapes, live observations, and interviews. Findings indicated that students with and without disabilities infrequently engaged in social interactions. Average percentage of time that classmates gave to students with disabilities was 2% social talk and less than 1% in each category for praise, use of first name, feedback, and physical contact. Two themes emerged in this regard: segregated inclusion and social isolation. Students with disabilities interacted with each other to a greater degree than with classmates without disabilities. Analysis of use of academic learning time revealed different percentages for students with and without disabilities.

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Breanna E. Studenka and Kodey Myers

) peers do ( Baron-Cohen, 2001 ; Phillips, Baron-Cohen, & Rutter, 1998 ), leading to deficits in social interaction and communication. One explanation for this difficulty has been that children with ASD have an underdeveloped theory of mind, defined as the ability to understand the perspectives of

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J.D. DeFreese, Michael J. Baum, Julianne D. Schmidt, Benjamin M. Goerger, Nikki Barczak, Kevin M. Guskiewicz and Jason P. Mihalik

descriptors represent unique study delimitations. Some of our participants may have personality traits (ie, high trait optimism, low trait negative affect) or external resources (eg, social support, positive social interactions) that allow them to cope with stressors in a more adaptive manner than others. 43

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Lana M. Pfaff and Michael E. Cinelli

human obstacle) to accommodate the possibilities for action of the human obstacle ( Chang, Wade, & Stoffregen, 2009 ; Creem-Regehr, Gagnon, Geuss, & Stefanucci, 2013 ). Despite our attempts to minimize social interaction, a human obstacle still possesses human qualities, and therefore, participants

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Marcos de Noronha, Eleisha K. Lay, Madelyn R. Mcphee, George Mnatzaganian and Guilherme S. Nunes

, and medical expenditures. 1 At an elite level, absence of an athlete due to an unexpected injury can result in defeats in major games, financial losses, and huge economic burden. 1 At a recreational level, participation in sport can be affected, with consequences in fitness and social interaction. 7

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Nicholas Hattrup, Hannah Gray, Mark Krumholtz and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

examining recovery have described the removal of patients following concussion from their daily social interactions along with the sudden decrease in aerobic fitness may negatively affect their quality of life. 20 , 21 Early aerobic exercise, even while the patient is symptomatic, may help to decrease some

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Carrie S. Baker and Gary B. Wilkerson

: 20818198 doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181f3c0fe 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181f3c0fe 12. De Freese JD , Mihalik JP . Work-based social interactions, perceived stress, and workload incongruence as antecedents of athletic trainer burnout . J Athl Train . 2016 ; 51 ( 1 ): 28 – 34 . doi:10.4085/1062-6050-51.2.05 10