This study analyzes how interactivity on Facebook relates to users’ browsing behaviors such as clicking a link, visiting a Web site, clicking articles on a Web site, and spending time on a sports news Web site. Regression analyses of 502 Facebook posts and the corresponding news articles show that the number of individuals who clicked on a link is not related to higher levels of interactivity, but an increase in interactivity did affect the number of overall visits generated. In addition, higher levels of interactivity had a slight negative correlation with the number of pages visited and the time spent on an organization’s Web site. Implications for the training and work routines of sport communication professionals in organizations, journalism, and public relations are discussed.
Jan Boehmer and Stephen Lacy
Gregory A. Cranmer and Maria Brann
Coaches are recognized as important sources of athlete experiences (e.g., learning, sport satisfaction, relationships with teammates), but little attention has been devoted to how coaches foster positive self-perceptions. The current exploratory study proposes that coaches are likely sources of confirmation (i.e., feeling of recognition, endorsement, and acknowledgment). This assumption was substantiated via 12 interviews with Division I volleyball players during the 2013 season as 6 confirming acts and messages used by coaches were identified (i.e., individualized communication, personal relationships, encouragement, demands for improvement, recognition, and demonstration of investment). In addition, 4 phenomena that influence confirmation were identified (i.e., adversity, knowledge of other coaches, athletes’ roles on the team, and timing). These results extend confirmation to the sport context, provide sport communication scholars with a novel framework to understand athlete–coach communication, and illustrate that various phenomena (including starting status) can influence confirming communication between athletes and coaches.
Mark Ludwig and Christoph Bertling
Though visual features such as slow motion, camera angle, or the cutting rate are considered to have great importance for professional media presentation of sports broadcasts and their influence on viewers, there has as yet been little research on the effects of fundamental visual parameters on viewer perception in the field of sport communication. In its primary step, this study researches the effect cutting rates have on the liking of live soccer broadcasts. To this end, an experiment (between-subjects design) with three groups (N = 92) was conducted. All participants received an identical excerpt of a soccer match; however, the number of cuts was systematically altered. A MANCOVA revealed significant effects—for example, a lower cutting rate leads the consumer to perceive less aesthetic appeal and the influences of effects are moderated by fandom. Implications are discussed.
Do Young Pyun and Jeffrey D. James
A challenge with advertising communications is to better understand beliefs driving people’s attitude toward advertising. Successful use of sport communication requires a better understanding of the beliefs composing attitudes toward advertising through sport. A 4-phase study was conducted to develop a scale measuring 7 belief dimensions as indicants of attitude toward advertising through sport. Phase 1 (N = 125) provided an initial test of the proposed instrument. Phase 2 (N = 215) included an assessment of the revised scale based on internal-consistency tests and exploratory factor analysis. In Phase 3 (N = 424) the scale’s reliability and validity were verified using confirmatory factor analysis. In Phase 4 (N = 263) the internal consistency and factor structure of the scale were reexamined. The combined results provide support for the conceptualization and measurement of the belief dimensions for future investigation of the relationships between beliefs about and attitude toward advertising through sport.
Orland Hoeber, Ryan Snelgrove, Larena Hoeber and Laura Wood
sporting event . International Journal of Sport Communication, 5 ( 4 ), 435 – 453 . doi: 10.1123/ijsc.5.4.435 Brown , N.A. , Brown , K.A. , & Billings , A.C. ( 2015 ). “May no act of ours bring shame”: Fan-enacted crisis communication surrounding the Penn State sex abuse scandal . Communication
David Welch Suggs Jr.
Sports reporters depend on access to events and sources as much or more than any other news professional. Over the past few years, some sports organizations have attempted to restrict such access, as well as what reporters can publish via social media. In the digital era, access and publishing autonomy, as institutionalized concepts, are evolving rapidly. Hypotheses tying access and work practices to reporters’ perceptions of the legitimacy they experience are developed and tested via a structural equation model, using responses to a survey of journalists in American intercollegiate athletics and observed dimensions of access and autonomy to measure a latent variable of legitimacy. The model suggests that reporters have mixed views about whether they possess the legitimacy they need to do their jobs.
Jon Michael Mills and George L. Daniels
The amount of time dedicated to sports coverage in local news has decreased substantially in recent years. In fact, some networks have eliminated traditional sports segments or outsourced them to national organizations. The now defunct Sinclair Broadcast Group’s SportsCentral represented a cost-efficient way to produce local sports segments in multiple media markets, and this study sought to understand how SportsCentral broadcasts compared with traditional broadcasts in 3 markets. An analysis of SportsCentral segments over a 17-month period in the Birmingham, AL; Oklahoma City; and Tampa–St. Petersburg markets showed that traditional sportscasts provided more local sports coverage than shows airing SportsCentral. While relying more heavily on satellite-generated content, sportscasts using SportsCentral had a wider variety of stories and aired more sports feature stories and franchises than the traditional sportscast. However, local newscasts found ways to integrate sports coverage into the news broadcast to cover late-breaking or important local stories.
This case study examines star Major League Baseball pitcher Roger Clemens’s image-repair strategies during a press conference he held to respond to allegations that he had used steroids and human-growth hormones earlier in his playing career. When professional athletes are confronted with allegations of cheating or illegitimately enhancing their athletic performance, they are faced with a crisis situation, and selecting and performing the appropriate response is paramount in repairing their image and mitigating personal harm (e.g., loss of endorsements). In many cases, however, professional athletes rely on attorneys, agents, or other individuals who might underestimate the relevance of appropriately communicating image repair, thereby resulting in the athlete’s image being further damaged. Although Clemens employed various image-repair strategies during his press conference, his failure to enact these strategies appropriately further harmed his reputation and ultimately raised more questions than he answered.