previous research (e.g., Eys, Carron, Bray, & Beauchamp, 2005 ). Responses were obtained on a 9-point Likert type scale anchored at 1 (s trongly disagree ) and 9 ( strongly agree ). Although these intentions represent different aspects of the sport environment, participants answered the questions
Mark Eys, Mark R. Beauchamp, Michael Godfrey, Kim Dawson, Todd M. Loughead and Robert J. Schinke
Gavin Breslin, Stephen Shannon, Kyle Ferguson, Shauna Devlin, Tandy Haughey and Garry Prentice
mental illness within team sports compared to individual sports suggests the presence of sport-specific cultural norms. Involvement in a team sport environment, therefore is not as big a barrier, as once thought ( Lopez & Levy, 2013 ), to seeking help for mental health problems, according to our sample
Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols
specialization, sport environment emphasizing weight and appearance, required weight change to accommodate sport-related needs such as weight class or required aesthetic, harshly punitive training environments). Assessing Patterns of Excessive Exercise An ED assessment should include evaluation of all exercise
Carlin M. Anderson, Trent A. Petrie and Craig S. Neumann
In this study, we tested Petrie and Greenleaf’s (2007) model of bulimic symptoms in two independent samples of female collegiate swimmers/divers and gymnasts. Structural equation modeling revealed support for the model, although it also suggested additional pathways. Specifically, general societal pressures regarding weight and body were related to the internalization of those ideals and, subsequently, to increases in body dissatisfaction. Pressures from the sport environment regarding weight and appearance were associated with more body dissatisfaction and more restrictive eating. Body dissatisfaction was related to more feelings of sadness, anger, and fear among the athletes. Negative affect, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint were related directly to bulimic symptoms, accounting for 55-58% of its variance. These results suggest that general sociocultural pressures are influential, but weight and appearance pressures in the sport environment may be even more pervasive and negative for female athletes.
Janet A. Donahue, Jacqueline H. Gillis and Karen King
This paper reviews published research on behavior modification in sport and physical education. Following an introduction and some general information concerning operant technology, the actual review covers three areas: (a) behavior modification and coaching/teaching behavior, (b) behavior modification in physical education and sport environments, and (c) behavior modification and skill development. The studies reviewed document the significant value of using reinforcement principles to create or sustain specific coaching, teaching, and participant behaviors germane to sport and physical education.
Robert J. Schinke, Gershon Tenenbaum, Ronnie Lidor and Randy C. Battochio
Adaptation is defined here as the end point in a process, when people respond in a positive manner to hardship, threat, and challenge, including monumental sport tests, such as international tournaments. Recently, there have been formal research investigations where adaptation has been considered as a provisional framework, with a more formal structure of pathways. Sport scholars have studied Olympic and professional athletes, provided support for a theoretical framework, and identified provisional substrategies for each pathway. In this article the authors situate adaptation within a larger discourse of related interventions, including coping and self-regulation. Subsequently, adaptation is proposed as a comprehensive intervention strategy for elite athletes during monumental sport environments.
Matthew J. Smith, David J. Young, Sean G. Figgins and Calum A. Arthur
We examined transformational leadership behaviors are exhibited in an elite sport environment. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 9 professional county cricket players to explore perceptions of transformational leadership behaviors of their captain and head-coach. Behaviors were firstly deductively categorized based on the Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory, with the most frequently cited being high performance expectations and individual consideration from the coach, and appropriate role-modeling of the captain. Further inductive analyses revealed a range of other factors which may influence players’ perceptions of transformational leadership. From these findings, suggestions are offered for those working in an applied context with sporting leaders.
George B. Cunningham
In this paper, from the Dr. Earle F. Zeigler Award Lecture presented in Austin, Texas, the author proposes that all persons have an obligation to ensure sport is inclusive and socially just. Works from a variety of disciplines, including religion, sociology, and social psychology, support the thesis. The author calls for collective action among sport management academicians, coalesced around teaching, research, and service to promote change. The final sections address potential counter narratives and provide an overview of the outcomes associated with an inclusive and socially just sport environment.
Michael Hutchison, Paul Comper, Lynda Mainwaring and Doug Richards
The baseline / postconcussion neuropsychological (NP) assessment model has been shown to be of clinical value and currently contributes significant information in sport concussion evaluation. Computerized NP batteries are now widely used in elite sport environments and are rapidly becoming more commonly utilized at the community level. With the growth of computerized NP testing, it is important to identify and understand unique characteristics with respect to baseline NP performance. The Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) is a library of computerized NP tests designed to detect speed and accuracy of attention, memory, and thinking ability. This article describes baseline ANAM test scores in a sample of Canadian university athletes and explores the following two factors: (a) performance differences between male and female student-athletes using ANAM tests and (b) the relationship between self-reported history of concussion and baseline NP performance.
Tamara L. Wickwire, Gordon A. Bloom and Todd M. Loughead
The purpose of this study was to examine elite same-sex dyadic sport teams. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with elite beach volleyball athletes. The results of the analysis revealed three higher-order categories: (a) sport environment, which included elements related to participation in beach volleyball such as challenges and comparisons between partnerships and other sports; (b) dyad structure and composition, which included individual and relationship elements that created a sense of balance in the partnership; and (c) dyadic interaction process, which focused on developing communication and cohesion in the partnership and working toward an ideal state where interaction was efficient and effective. The results of the study extend group dynamics literature by studying the dyad as a separate group entity and by revealing information specific to this group of athletes.