This exploratory research investigation focused on the concept of human extensibility and sought to introduce the topic to the sport management literature. The purpose of this inquiry on human extensibility centered on attempting to better understand how professionalized sport facilities embrace communication technology to help virtual and remote spectators become extensible agents. The space-time path of both a high and low-identified sport fan was tracked through the creation of a Geographic Information System (GIS) based model to help explain the extensibility phenomenon. The GIS-based diagrams were established with the help of data collected from a space-time diary, video camera, and participant interviews. Professionalized sport facilities enjoy the space and ability to incorporate highly technical structures within their confines to help improve human extensibility, however, people must possess the resources (i.e., time and money), desire, and knowledge to exploit the technology. The researcher suggests future producers of sport products will benefit both publicly and financially with this emphasis. Finally, this research endeavor offers further discussion and predictions on newer technology emerging that professionalized sport facilities will or should likely embrace in the future to improve extensibility for all types of fans and to create, maintain, and/or secure greater fan identification.
Matthew Katz, Thomas A. Baker III and Hui Du
Among the many characteristics of brand community ( Muniz & O’Guinn, 2001 ), few are more salient in the context of sport fans than their nongeographically bound nature. Sport fans do not need to live in the same geographic communities as the teams they support. For example, European soccer clubs
Yuhei Inoue, Mikihiro Sato, Kevin Filo, James Du and Daniel C. Funk
designed Study 2 as a “professional sport fan study” by defining the target population as adults following a professional sport team. Because professional sport teams are recipients of public funding for sport facilities in the United States ( Howard & Crompton, 2014 ), understanding the role of these
Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap and Yingzi Xu
In the sporting arena, the consumption of sport is increasingly moving to the online realm. Online social networks have facilitated extensive interactions and collaborative consumption activities among like-minded fans, leading to the creation of online sport-fan communities ( Hedlund, 2014 ). In
Terry Eddy, Lamar Reams and Stephen Dittmore
As online business models have evolved, learning what drives users’ consumptive behaviors has gained increasing interest to sport researchers and sport properties. An increasing number of sport properties are expanding, and deriving revenues from, their presence on digital-media platforms (e.g., MLB, NBA, NFL, UFC, WWE, etc.). Of the sport properties mentioned, none are more reliant on digital-media activity than the Ultimate Fighting Championship. As such, the purpose of this study was to examine the motivations and related consumption habits of users of non-subscription-based (i.e., free-to-use) online message boards. Findings suggest that message-board users find value in the opportunities for interactivity and that heavy online mixed-martial-arts users watch more events and purchase more merchandise than those who spend less time online.
This case study investigated athletes’ use of a specific social-media platform—Twitter. Social media are a rising force in marketing and have been fully embraced by the sport industry, with teams, leagues, coaches, athletes, and managers establishing presences. Primarily these presences have been focused on Twitter, a microblogging site that allows users to post their personal thoughts in 140 characters or less. Athletes, in particular, have engaged in tweeting at a fast pace, which raises the question, What are they saying? This case study investigated the tweets of athletes over a 7-d period in an attempt to answer that question. The findings indicate that athletes are talking predominantly about their personal lives and responding to fans’ queries through Twitter. The results indicate that Twitter is a powerful tool for increasing fan–athlete interaction.
Lauren Reichart Smith and Kenny D. Smith
This case study, using social-identity theory as a framework, examines how sport consumers and producers used different identifiers to engage in conversation during the final games of the 2012 College World Series of baseball. Five major hashtags were noted for each baseball team as primary identifiers; users fit in 3 main groups and subgroups. The analysis of tweets revealed 5 major themes around which the conversations primarily revolved. The study has implications for social-identity theory and team identification, as well as broader implications for audience fragmentation and notions of the community of sport.
Taesoo Ahn, Young Ik Suh, Jin Kyun Lee and Paul M. Pedersen
The current study sought to identify the effect of team identification on brand attitude and purchase intention in terms of team logo changes. Doubly Multivariate Analysis of repeated measures, 2 (logo change: original and redesigned logo) × 3 (team identification: high, moderate, and low), was conducted on attitude toward the brand and purchase intention of team-logoed merchandise. The results showed that there were significant differences between fans with high identification and fans with low identification. The findings of this study can be beneficial for both sport industry practitioners and marketing scholars by providing an understanding of brand attitude and purchase intention related to new redesigned logos based upon different levels of team identification.
P. Monica Chien, Sarah J. Kelly and Clinton S. Weeks
We conducted an experiment to investigate the impact of sport scandal on consumer attitudes toward a range of sport stakeholders. We examined the effects of fans’ social identity (fan of scandalized team vs. fan of rival team), scandal severity (single perpetrator vs. multiple perpetrators), and the sponsor brand’s response to the scandal (sponsorship retention vs. termination) on consumers’ attitudes toward the implicated team, the scandal perpetrators, the sport, and sponsor brand. We find evidence of differential reactions to scandal reflecting social identity, such that fans support their own team despite increased scandal severity but negatively judge a rival team’s transgressions. Results suggest that where fans are concerned, sponsors may be better served to continue with a sponsorship following scandal than to terminate, even for some forms of severe scandal. However, termination may receive more positive evaluation from rival team fans; hence continuation of sponsorship needs to accompany a tempered approach.
Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink
with which they identify ( Golec de Zavala & Cichocka, 2012 ), this is an area that warrants further exploration among sport fans. After all, sport fans have long been criticized for being unrealistic ( Poladian, 2015 ) and oversensitive ( Burke, 2014 ), and have shown a history of aggressive responses