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Laura S. Kox, P. Paul F.M. Kuijer, Dagmar A.J. Thijssen, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs, Rick R. van Rijn, Monique H.W. Frings-Dresen and Mario Maas

Background: The benefits and risks of performing popular wrist-loading sports at a young age have not been investigated systematically. We aimed to evaluate positive and negative long-term wrist-related health effects of sports performance requiring repetitive wrist loading during youth. Methods: Six databases were searched for cohort and cross-sectional studies. Three investigators selected studies evaluating quantitatively measured health effects of upper extremities in athletes practicing wrist-loading sports (gymnastics, tennis, volleyball, field hockey, rowing, and judo) for minimally 4 months before the age of 18. Results: A total of 23 studies with 5 outcome measures, nearly all of moderate to good quality, were eligible for inclusion. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content were higher in athletes compared with controls and in tennis players’ dominant arm. Mixed results were found for ulnar variance in gymnasts. Handgrip strength was greater in tennis players’ dominant arm and in experienced gymnasts. Conclusions: Wrist-loading sports performance during youth can promote bone strength in wrists and dominant handgrip strength, but evidence on the lasting of these effects and on prevalence of wrist joint degeneration in former young athletes is limited. For better counseling of young athletes and their parents, future studies with increased comparability are essential, for which recommendations are provided.

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Sherry Robertson and Margo Mountjoy

.L. , Berglund , L. , & Berglund , B. ( 2008 ). Special attention to the weight-control strategies employed by Olympic athletes striving for leanness is required . Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 18 , 5 – 9 . PubMed ID: 18185032 doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e31804c77bd 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31804c77bd Holick

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Carlos Amo, Miguel Ortiz del Castillo, Rafael Barea, Luis de Santiago, Alejandro Martínez-Arribas, Pedro Amo-López and Luciano Boquete

Objective:

Propose a simplified method applicable in routine clinical practice that uses EEG to assess induced gamma-band activity (GBA) in the 30–90 Hz frequency range in cerebral motor areas.

Design:

EEG recordings (25 healthy subjects) of cerebral activity (at rest, motor task). GBA was obtained as power spectral density (PSD). GBA — defined as the gamma index (Iγ) — was calculated using the basal GBA (γB) and motor GBA (γMOV) PSD values.

Results:

The mean values of Iγ were (Iγ R (right hand) = 1.30, Iγ L (left hand) = 1.22). Manual laterality showed a correlation with Iγ.

Conclusions:

Iγ may provide a useful way of indirectly assessing operation of activated motor neuronal circuits. It could be applied to diagnosis of motor area pathologies and as follow up in rehabilitation processes. Likewise, Iγ could enable the assessment of motor capacity, physical training and manual laterality in sport medicine.

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Diarmuid Hurley and Montse C. Ruiz

This study documented the lived career-ending injury experiences among elite Irish rugby football union (IRFU) players. Three players took part in semistructured one-on-one interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, 1996) revealed that the process of psychosocial injury rehabilitation and the subsequent transition process was for the most part a distressing one and evolved in a cyclical, yet stage-like (Heil, 1994), manner. The nature of the postinjury career transition appeared to be dependent on the interactional balance of participants’ psychosocial responses to injury, existing coping mechanisms, and other factors related to the injury and career transition process. Appropriate social support network, use of sport medicine and counseling professionals, as well as organizational officials are needed to best prepare elite rugby players for life outside of sport, and to ensure a healthy career transition (Taylor & Ogilvie, 1994) out of sport.

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Franco M. Impellizzeri

, disinformation, and manipulation to the masses. Sport science and sport medicine are not alone in the ever-expanding use of social media—it is common in all scientific fields and, indeed, walks of life. Social communities focusing on fitness, sport training, and nutrition are also widespread, and it is now

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Izzeldin Ibrahim, Eiman Al Hammadi, Suzan Sayegh, Lena Zimmo, Jwaher Al Neama, Husam Rezeq, Abdulla Saeed Al-Mohannadi and Al Anoud Al-Thani

Card Leadership (RCL) Team was established at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sport Medicine Hospital, in collaboration with Stakeholder Group (SG) including members from well-established governmental and academic institutions in Qatar: Ministry of Public Health, Ministry of Education and Higher Education, and

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Hyun Chul Jung, Myong Won Seo, Sukho Lee, Sung Woo Jung and Jong Kook Song

: Academic Press . Constantini , N.W. , Arieli , R. , Chodick , G. , & Dubnov-Raz , G. ( 2010 ). High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in athletes and dancers . Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 20 , 368 – 371 . PubMed ID: 20818195 doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181f207f2 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3181

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Sarah Staal, Anders Sjödin, Ida Fahrenholtz, Karen Bonnesen and Anna Katarina Melin

dysfunction in dancers . Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 21 , 119 – 125 . PubMed ID: 21358502 doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e3182042a9a 10.1097/JSM.0b013e3182042a9a Kaufman , B.A. , Warren , M.P. , Dominguez , J.E. , Wang , J. , Heymsfield , S.B. , & Pierson , R.N. ( 2002 ). Bone density and

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Martin C. Waller, Deborah A. Kerr, Martyn J. Binnie, Emily Eaton, Clare Wood, Terreen Stenvers, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Carmel Goodman and Kagan J. Ducker

.A. , Fung , T.S. , Doyle-Baker , P.K. , Verhoef , M.J. , & Reimer , R.A. ( 2007 ). Dietary supplementation of high-performance Canadian athletes by age and gender . Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 17 , 458 – 464 . doi:10.1097/JSM.0b013e31815aed33 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31815aed33 Erdman , K

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David G. Behm

the aforementioned sports are individual sports, which would skew those data to higher socioeconomic families. The authors mentioned that the low-income families would also be less likely to seek medical intervention from specialists in sport medicine clinics, which was a main recruiting outlet for