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Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Leslee A. Fisher and Scott B. Martin

study of ATs’ use of sport psychology with injured athletes, concluded that “it is neither necessary nor feasible for athletic trainers to have the knowledge and skill to employ all of these techniques themselves, particularly the more specialized psychological skills such as relaxation and imagery” (p

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Stewart Cotterill

nature of these challenges in the sport lend them to engagement with sport psychology, and sport psychology practitioners. While this is the case, sport psychology provision in cricket has lagged behind many other sports and domains, particularly in comparison with Olympic sports in the United Kingdom

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Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim and Ceri Diss

sport psychology research are not “fit for purpose” when it comes to applied practice and perpetuate the gap between research and practice. Martens recommended that we seek to develop practical theories and insights that reflect the real world of applied practice. To illustrate, the T-SIRG does not

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Gregg Tkachuk, Adrienne Leslie-Toogood and Garry L. Martin

We suggest that expanded use of behavioral assessment strategies in sports by researchers and practitioners will be beneficial for researchers, practitioners, athletes, and coaches. Behavioral assessment involves the collection and analysis of information and data in order to identify and describe target behaviors, identify possible causes of the behaviors, select appropriate treatment strategies to modify the behaviors, and evaluate treatment outcomes. In this paper, we summarize characteristics of traditional approaches to assessment in sport psychology, describe differences between behavioral assessment and traditional assessment, examine components of behavioral assessment for sport psychology practitioners and researchers, and discuss future directions in behavioral assessment in sport psychology.

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Rainer Martens

Two sport psychologies have emerged—academic sport psychology and practicing sport psychology—which presently are on diverging courses because of an unjustified belief in orthodox science as the primary source of knowledge. To support this contention, the basic assumptions of orthodox science are examined, with the doctrine of objectivity singled out as fallacious and especially harmful in that it attempts to remove the person from the process of knowing. Polanyi’s (1958) heuristic philosophy of knowledge, which places humans in the center of the process of knowing, is recommended as an alternative approach for the study of human behavior. This alternative approach reveals the inadequacy of the laboratory experiment which has been invented primarily to pursue the doctrine of objectivity. Next, the Degrees of Knowledge theory is proposed as an alternative way to view the reliability of knowledge. This view, within the heuristic paradigm, places great significance on experiential knowledge. Recommendations for an improved science of human behavior emphasizes the idiographic approach, introspective methods, and field studies. Also, recommendations are made for a more progressive approach to applied research, and the significance of knowledge synthesis from applied research. The two sport psychologies will converge when orthodox science and the doctrine of objectivity are replaced with the heuristic paradigm and its emphasis on experiential knowledge.

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William B. Strean and Glyn C. Roberts

Many debates have raged about professional issues in sport psychology, but the research aspect of applied sport psychology has received relatively little attention. In an effort to stimulate thinking about research, this paper discusses the aims of science, the underlying philosophy of science issues that impinge on sport psychology research, and current methodological controversies. The paper concludes with suggestions for future directions for research in applied sport psychology, and implications for consulting are addressed.

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Kristoffer Henriksen, Louise Kamuk Storm, Natalia Stambulova, Nicklas Pyrdol and Carsten Hvid Larsen

Context-driven practice is a recognized trend in contemporary sport psychology ( Schinke, McGannon, Parham, & Lane, 2012 ). A recent Special Issue of Journal of Sport Psychology in Action ( Schinke & Stambulova, 2017 ) focuses on the practitioners’ experiences of working in different contexts and

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John Corlett

It is argued that knowledge of the traditions of Western philosophy can play a valuable role in applied sport psychology. A contrast between sophist and Socratic ideas from Athens of the 5th-century BC is used to demonstrate the contribution a sound philosophical foundation can make in professional practice. Sophists are technique driven and concerned solely with specific skills that produce successful performance results. Socratics, in contrast, encourage rigorous personal examination and improved knowledge of self as the only meaningful pathway to personal happiness. The application of each philosophy to counseling situations such as fear of failure and eating disorders is described, and the potential role of philosophy and the humanities in the education of sport psychologists is discussed.

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Daniel M. Landers

From 1950 to 1980, the field of sport psychology made significant strides. The developments were so rapid and so profound that this period can be called the “formative” years of the field. There was a tremendous expansion of the sport psychology literature, some of which constituted sustained contributions on a single research topic. Several textbooks and specialty books were published during this time period. Sport psychology journal articles expanded so much that journals devoted entirely to sport psychology research were created. The first graduate programs and research societies that focused more directly on sport psychology were also established. Applied sport psychology techniques, such as relaxation, imagery, and concentration training, were developed and made available to athletes. In addition to providing a description of the above-mentioned developments, some insights into dominant research methodology trends will be presented for the time periods of 1950 to 1965 and from 1966 to 1980.

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Richard M. Suinn

This article is a brief historical description of events involving the activities in sport psychology associated with the 1984 Olympics. For the first time, systematic services in sport psychology were provided to Winter and Summer Olympic teams, and such services are described. Some illustrations of the athletes' response to these services are also provided. Finally, the article summarizes the opinions of the professionals who provided such services, in terms of recommendations for the future development of sport psychology.