in 2018 approved the sport’s new sport-specific evidence-based classification system. The system was created in collaboration with international classifiers from the International Canoe Federation (ICF) and is based upon research undertaken by Rosén et al. ( 2019 ). In the Paralympic Para Va'a event
Johanna S. Rosén, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Keith Tolfrey, Anton Arndt and Anna Bjerkefors
Ronald E. Smith, Robert W. Schutz, Frank L. Smoll and J.T. Ptacek
Confirmatory factor analysis was used as the basis for a new form of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI). The ACSI-28 contains seven sport-specific subscales: Coping With Adversity, Peaking Under Pressure, Goal Setting/Mental Preparation, Concentration, Freedom From Worry, Confidence and Achievement Motivation, and Coachability. The scales can be summed to yield a Personal Coping Resources score, which is assumed to reflect a multifaceted psychological skills construct. Confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated the factorial validity of the ACSI-28, as the seven subscales conform well to the underlying factor structure for both male and female athletes. Psychometric characteristics are described, and preliminary evidence for construct and predictive validity is presented.
Michail Lubomirov Michailov, Audry Morrison, Mano Mitkov Ketenliev and Boyanka Petkova Pentcheva
Traditional treadmill or bicycle ergometry neglects the upper-body musculature that predominantly limits or terminates rock-climbing performance (ie, the inability to continually pull up one’s body mass or “hang on”).
To develop an incremental maximal upper-body ergometer test (UBT) to evaluate climbers’ aerobic fitness and sport-specific work capacity and to compare these results with a traditional treadmill protocol.
Eleven elite sport climbers (best redpoint grade Fr.8b) performed a UBT on a vertically mounted rowing ergometer and, on a separate occasion, performed a maximal incremental treadmill test (TMT). Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured continuously. Lactate (La) samples were collected.
Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and heart rate in UBT and TMT were 34.1 ± 4.1 vs 58.3 ± 2.6 mL · min−1 · kg−1 and 185 ± 8 vs 197 ± 8 beats/min, respectively, and both variables were of significantly lower magnitude during UBT (P < .001). End-of-test La levels for UBT (11.9 ± 1.7 mmol/L) and TMT (12.3 ± 2.5 mmol/L) were similar (P = .554). Treadmill VO2peak was not correlated with either upper-body (UB) VO2peak (P = .854) or redpoint and on-sight climbing grade ability (P > .05). UB VO2peak and peak power output per kg body mass were both strongly correlated (P < .05) with climbing grade ability. The highest correlation coefficient was calculated between current on-sight grade and UB VO2peak (r = .85, P = .001).
UBT aerobic- and work-capacity results were strongly correlated to climbing-performance variables and reflected sport-specific fatigue, and TMT results were not. UBT is preferred to TMT to test and monitor dedicated and elite rock climbers’ training status.
Julia Kathrin Baumgart and Øyvind Sandbakk
To investigate on-ice repeated-sprint and sports-specific-technique abilities and the relationships to aerobic and anaerobic off-ice capacities in world-class ice sledge hockey players.
Twelve Norwegian national team players performed 8 repeated maximal 30-m sprints and a sports-specific-technique test while upper-body poling on ice, followed by 4 maximal upper-body strength tests and 8-s peak power and 3-min peak aerobic-capacity (VO2peak) tests while ergometer poling.
The fastest 30-m sprint time was 6.5 ± 0.4 s, the fastest initial 10-m split-time 2.9 ± 0.2 s, and the corresponding power output 212 ± 37 W. Average 30-m time during the 8 repeated sprints was 6.7 ± 0.4 s, and the sprint-time decrement was 4.3% ± 1.8%. Time to execute the sport-specific-technique test was 25.6 ± 2.7 s. Averaged 1-repetition-maximum strength of the 4 exercises correlated with the fastest 30-m sprint time (r = –.77), the fastest initial 10-m split time (r = –.72), the corresponding power output (r = .67), and the average 30-m sprint time (r = –.84) (all P < .05). Peak power of the 8-s ergometer sprint test correlated with the highest initial 10-m power (r = .83, P < .01) and the average 30-m sprint time (r = –.68, P < .05). Average 3-min ergometer power (r = –.86, P < .01) and VO2peak (r = –.67, P < .05) correlated with the sprint-time decrement. All off-ice variables except VO2peak correlated with technique-test time (r = –.58 to .73, all P < .05).
Maximal strength and power are associated with the ability to sprint fast and rapid execution of a technically complex test, whereas mode-specific endurance capacity is particularly important for maintenance of sprint ability in ice sledge hockey.
Thorben Hülsdünker, Clara Rentz, Diemo Ruhnow, Hannes Käsbauer, Heiko K. Strüder and Andreas Mierau
However, these studies were conducted with untrained participants and often under laboratory conditions, resulting in a lack of ecological validity. Thus, it remains largely unclear if stroboscopic training is effective to improve sport-specific visuomotor performance of athletes who have already reached
Derek G. Shendell, Tracy A. Listwan, Lauren Gonzalez and Joseph Panchella
. During spring 2016, 22 concussions were reported. Corresponding values for 2016–2017 were 56 (3 and 53), 15, and 22, respectively. Tables 1 – 5 summarize season- and sport-specific data. Overall, most concussion reports were completed by certified athletic trainers with information submitted by school
Bettina Karsten, Liesbeth Stevens, Mark Colpus, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala and Fernando Naclerio
To investigate the effects of a sport-specific maximal 6-wk strength and conditioning program on critical velocity (CV), anaerobic running distance (ARD), and 5-km time-trial performance (TT).
16 moderately trained recreational endurance runners were tested for CV, ARD, and TT performances on 3 separate occasions (baseline, midstudy, and poststudy).
Participants were randomly allocated into a strength and conditioning group (S&C; n = 8) and a comparison endurance-trainingonly group (EO; n = 8). During the first phase of the study (6 wk), the S&C group performed concurrent maximal strength and endurance training, while the EO group performed endurance-only training. After the retest of all variables (midstudy), both groups subsequently, during phase 2, performed another 6 wk of endurance-only training that was followed by poststudy tests.
No significant change for CV was identified in either group. The S&C group demonstrated a significant decrease for ARD values after phases 1 and 2 of the study. TT performances were significantly different in the S&C group after the intervention, with a performance improvement of 3.62%. This performance increase returned close to baseline after the 6-wk endurance-only training.
Combining a 6-wk resistance-training program with endurance training significantly improves 5-km TT performance. Removing strength training results in some loss of those performance improvements.
Øyvind Sandbakk, Vegard Rasdal, Steinar Bråten, Frode Moen and Gertjan Ettema
To compare sport-specific laboratory capacities and the annual training of world-class Nordic combined (NC) athletes with specialized ski jumpers (SJ) and cross-country (XC) skiers.
Five world-class athletes from each sports discipline were compared. Ski jump imitations were performed on a 3-dimensional force plate in NC athletes and SJ, whereas XC skiing characteristics were obtained from submaximal and maximal roller ski skating on a treadmill in NC athletes and XC skiers. In addition, anthropometrics and annual training characteristics were determined.
NC athletes demonstrated 9% higher body mass and showed 17% lower vertical speed in the ski jump imitation than SJ (all P < .05). NC athletes had 12% lower body mass and showed 10% lower peak treadmill speed and 12% lower body-mass-normalized peak oxygen uptake than XC skiers (all P < .05). NC athletes performed half the number of ski-jumping-specific sessions and outdoor ski jumps compared with SJ. NC athletes performed 31% less endurance training, mainly caused by lower amounts of low- and moderate-intensity training in the classical technique, whereas high-intensity strength and speed training and endurance training in the skating technique did not differ substantially from XC skiers.
To simultaneously optimize endurance, explosive, and technical capacities in 2 different disciplines, world-class NC athletes train approximately two-thirds of the XC skier’s endurance training volume and perform one-half of the ski-jump-specific training compared with SJ. Still, the various laboratory capacities differed only 10–17% compared with SJ and XC skiers.
Paul A. Borsa, Scott M. Lephart and James J. Irrgang
We compared the outcome measures of three knee scoring systems currently used to measure disability in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)–deficient athletes. Twenty-nine ACL-deficient athletes completed three scoring systems (the Lysholm Knee Scoring System, a modified version of the Cincinnati Knee Scoring System, and the Knee Outcome Survey). Results demonstrate statistically significant mean differences and linear relationships between the outcome measures for the three scoring systems. The Knee Outcome Survey appears to provide valid measures of disability and indicates that our subjects functioned well with activities of daily living but became symptomatic and functionally limited with sports. The outcome measures also indicate that the Lysholm system is more specific to activities of daily living, while the modified Cincinnati is more specific to sports. We recommend that standard scoring systems be developed to provide measures of functional disability in athletes who experience knee injuries.
Jonathan Sinclair and Paul J. Taylor
Context: Prophylactic knee bracing is extensively utilized in athletic populations to reduce the high risk from knee injuries, but its role in the attenuation of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) pathologies is not well understood. Objective: The aim of this investigation was to explore the effects of a prophylactic knee sleeve on ACL loading parameters linked to the etiology of injury in recreational athletes. Setting: Laboratory. Design: Repeated measures. Participants: Thirteen healthy male recreational athletes. Intervention: Participants performed run, cut, and single-leg hop movements under 2 conditions; prophylactic knee sleeve and no sleeve. Main Outcome Measures: Biomechanical data were captured using an 8-camera 3D motion capture system and a force platform. Peak ACL force, average ACL load rate, and instantaneous ACL load rate were quantified using a musculoskeletal modeling approach. Results: The results showed that both average and instantaneous ACL load rates were significantly reduced when wearing the knee sleeve in the hop (sleeve = 612.45/1286.39 N/kg/s and no sleeve = 743.91/1471.42 N/kg/s) and cut (sleeve = 222.55/1058.02 N/kg/s and no sleeve = 377.38/1183.01 N/kg/s) movements. Conclusions: Given the biomechanical association between ACL loading and the etiology of ACL injuries, it is proposed that athletes may be able to attenuate their risk from injury during cut and hop movements through utilization of a prophylactic knee sleeve.