The goal of this study was to investigate differences in physical fitness and sports participation over 2 years in children with relatively high, average, and low motor competence. Physical fitness and gross motor coordination of 501 children between 6–10 years were measured at baseline and baseline+2 years. The sample compromised 2 age cohorts: 6.00–7.99 and 8.00–9.99 years. An age and sex-specific motor quotient at baseline testing was used to subdivide these children into low (MQ < P33), average (P33 ≤ MQ < P66) and high (MQ ≥ P66) motor competence groups. Measures of sports participation were obtained through a physical activity questionnaire in 278 of the same children. Repeated Measures MANCOVA and two separate ANOVAs were used to analyze differences in changes in physical fitness and measures of sports participation respectively. Children with high motor competence scored better on physical fitness tests and participated in sports more often. Since physical fitness levels between groups changed similarly over time, low motor competent children might be at risk for being less physically fit throughout their life. Furthermore, since low motor competent children participate less in sports, they have fewer opportunities of developing motor abilities and physical fitness and this may further prevent them from catching up with their peers with an average or high motor competence.
Job Fransen, Dieter Deprez, Johan Pion, Isabel B Tallir, Eva D’Hondt, Roel Vaeyens, Matthieu Lenoir and Renaat M. Philippaerts
Deborah B. Horn, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate
The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with physical activity (PA) in women during the first year following high school.
Females from 22 high schools (n = 915) completed the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall in 12th grade and reported if they were sports participants. After graduation, 305 women (18.9 ± 0.6 years) completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. They reported time spent per day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and vigorous PA (VPA) for the previous week. Multiple logistic regression was used to predict postgraduate PA.
The odds of being in the high-active group were greater in women who were sports participants (OR = 1.93) in 12th grade. The odds of being in the high-active group were greater among white women (OR = 2.09) and greater among currently employed women compared with unemployed women (OR = 5.57). MVPA had borderline significance in the regression model.
Sports participation and being currently employed predicted physical activity at postgraduation.
Alan Nevill, Paul Donnelly, Simon Shibli, Charlie Foster and Marie Murphy
The association between health and deprivation is of serious concern to many health promotion agencies. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether modifiable behaviors of physical activity (PA), sports participation, diet, smoking and body mass index (BMI) can help to explain these inequalities in a sample of 4653 respondents from Northern Ireland.
The study is based on a cross-sectional survey of Northern Irish adults. Responses to a self-rated health question were dichotomized and binary logistic regression was used to identify the health inequalities between areas of high, middle or low deprivation. These differences were further adjusted for other sociodemographic factors and subsequently for various modifiable behaviors of PA, sports participation, diet, smoking, and BMI.
Respondents from high and middle areas of deprivation are more likely to report poorer health. As soon as sociodemographic factors and other modifiable behaviors were included, these inequalities either disappeared or were greatly reduced.
Many inequalities in health in NI can be explained by the respondents’ sociodemographic characteristics that can be further explained by introducing information about respondents who meet the recommended PA guidelines, play sport, eat 5 portions of fruit and vegetables, and maintain an optimal BMI.
David S. Levin, Edward A. Smith, Linda L. Caldwell and Jennifer Kimbrough
This study sought to examine whether athletes are more violent, delinquent, or both than their nonathlete classmates. Survey data from 2,436 high school students indicated no significant differences for violent or delinquent behaviors between athletes and nonathletes. However, analysis of the data by the type of sport indicated noncontact sport athletes were less likely to engage in various violent and delinquent behaviors than were contact sport athletes and nonathletes. These relationships were found for both males and females. Noncontact sports may provide some protective effect with regards to violence and delinquency that contact sports do not.
Sharon E. Taverno Ross, Lori A. Francis, Rhonda Z. BeLue and Edna A. Viruell-Fuentes
This study examines relations between parent and youth physical activity (PA; days per week), sports participation, and overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) among U.S. youth, and whether this relationship varies by immigrant generation and sex.
Participants included 28,691 youth ages 10–17 years from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. Youth were grouped into first, second, and third or higher generation. Primary analyses include Chi-square and post hoc tests to assess mean differences, and adjusted logistic regressions to test associations between weight status and independent variables.
Each additional day youth participated in PA decreased their odds of overweight (OW) by 10% [OR: 0.90 (0.87–0.94)]; participation in sports significantly reduced their odds of OW by 17% [OR: 0.83 (0.71–0.98)]. First generation boys who participated in sports had 70% lower odds of OW [OR: 0.30 (0.11–0.83)] compared with first generation boys who did not participate in sports. For third generation girls, participation in sports reduced the odds of OW by 23% [OR: 0.77 (0.62–0.96)] compared with those who did not participate in sports.
The protective influence of PA on youth’s risk of OW varies by immigrant generation and sex. Parent PA was not related to youth’s risk of OW.
Edited by Thomas W. Rowland
Edited by Thomas W. Rowland
Geraldine Naughton and John Carlson
This study examined the changes in the physiological profile of children engaged in organized sporting activity compared to a group of normally active children. Eight children (mean age 11.4 yrs) from each of four popular sports in Australia (badminton, basketball, netball, and tennis) and an equal number of nontraining children were monitored over a 12-week season. Very few differences occurred between the sporting groups and the control group. No change was reported between groups in peak oxygen uptake at the start and completion of the season. Changes occurring within each group did not consistently reflect any sport-specific characteristics over the season. Flexibility improved significantly, with an average gain of 3.76 cm in all groups except basketball players, who gained only 0.69 cm for the 12 weeks. Anaerobic power demonstrated significant improvement only within those sporting groups whose training specifically included explosive based activity. It is suggested that the active nature of the control children and use of only 12 weeks of data collection could have contributed to the limited physiological differences observed between active sporting and nonsporting children.
Peter T. Katzmarzyk and Robert M. Malina
The contribution of organized sport participation to the total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) of youth was estimated in a sample of 90 males and 93 females, 12-14 years of age. TDEE and moderate-to-vigorous energy expenditure (MVEE) were estimated using a 3-day activity record. Males expended 20.4% of TDEE in youth sports; the corresponding estimate for females was 16.3%. Males and females expended 55% and 64.6%, respectively, of MVEE in youth sports. Youth who participated in organized sports had greater TDEE and MVEE, and spent less time watching television than those who did not participate. Thus, organized sport participation appears to be a significant component of daily energy expenditure among youth.
John R. Sirard, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate
The purpose of this study was to identify racial differences in physical activity (PA), fitness, and BMI in female 8th-grade sports participants and nonparticipants. Girls from 31 South Carolina middle schools (N = 1,903, 48% White; mean age = 13.6 ± 0.63) reported PA and previous year sports-team participation, completed a submaximal fitness test, and had height and weight measured. Sports team participation was positively associated with PA and negatively associated with television viewing and BMI, in a dose-response manner. Compared with Whites, African-Americans reported less PA and more television viewing, and had greater BMI scores. Whereas PA intervention programs that incorporate a sports-team component could benefit all girls, African-American girls could be specifically targeted because of their lower physical activity.