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Elif Turgut, Irem Duzgun and Gul Baltaci

of stretching, strengthening, or neuromuscular control exercises in these studies; however, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of a stretching program alone. Studies on healthy shoulders have favored cross-body adduction exercise for posterior capsule stretching and unilateral self-stretch

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Fang-Yu Hsu, Kuei-Lan Tsai, Chia-Lun Lee, Wen-Dien Chang and Nai-Jen Chang

. Warm-up exercise is an essential preexercise routine for athletes to optimize performance. 4 The risk of sport injuries can be reduced through warm-up regimens. 5 , 6 Static stretching (SS) is one warm-up method that moves a limb to the end range of motion (ROM) where it is held for several seconds

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Ulrike H. Mitchell, J. William Myrer, J. Ty Hopkins, Iain Hunter, J. Brent Feland and Sterling C. Hilton


Some researchers have suggested that an alteration of stretch perception could be responsible for the success of the contract-relax (CR) stretch, a stretch technique derived from proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF).


This study was conducted to determine if the alteration of the stretch perception is a possible explanation for the range of motion (ROM) gains of the CR stretch.


Eighteen subjects performed two stretches in randomized order: the slow stretch and the CR stretch.

Main Outcome Measure:

The stretch intensity was controlled. The stretch force was measured and compared between the slow stretch and CR stretch.


There was a significant difference between the stretch force that could be applied in the PNF stretch (126.0 N) and the slow stretch (108.4 N); P = 0.00086. The average stretch tolerance progressively increased with successive trials from 120.6 N in the first trial to 132.4 N in the fourth trial.


The alteration of stretch perception plays a role in the success of the CR form of PNF stretching. At least four repetitions of the CR stretch are recommended to get the greatest ROM gain.

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Kimberly Somers, Dustin Aune, Anthony Horten, James Kim and Julia Rogers

-myofascial release and dynamic stretching interventions. Research has shown that ROM can be increased through repeated bouts of stretching by increasing muscle tendon unit length and decreasing muscle stiffness. 13 Using ultrasonography, Morse et al 13 found available ROM prior to stretching resulted from

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Samantha J. Wilson, Bryan Christensen, Kara Gange, Christopher Todden, Harlene Hatterman-Valenti and Jay M. Albrecht

Acute static stretching has been shown to decrease muscle performance 1 ; however, chronic stretching has been shown to improve several athletic performance variables over time including 1-repetition maximum (1RM), 2 flexibility, gait economy, 3 running speed, 4 peak torque, 5 and vertical jump

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Amy Mauro and Blaine C. Long

Key Points ▸ Many clinicians utilize proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching in clinical practice. ▸ Prior to stretching, clinicians often utilize cryotherapy or thermotherapy in order to facilitate range of motion (ROM) changes. ▸ The utilization of cryotherapy or a moist heat

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Max Pietrzak and Niels B.J. Vollaard

Australian Football League players with HSI resulted in significantly faster return to play. Human in-vivo hamstring stretching studies in noninjured subjects strongly supports stretch tolerance as a primary mechanism responsible for lasting increases in hamstring extensibility utilizing intervention

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Benjamin S. Killen, Krista L. Zelizney and Xin Ye

Static stretching (SS) and self-administered foam rolling (SAFR) are both effective exercise techniques being utilized in rehabilitation settings. The main goal of applying these maneuvers is to increase one’s range of motion (ROM), thereby improving fitness and functional capacities. 1 , 2

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Masatoshi Nakamura, Shigeru Sato, Ryosuke Kiyono, Nobushige Takahashi and Tomoichi Yoshida

In clinical and sports settings, static stretching (SS) is usually performed to increase range of motion (ROM) and decrease passive stiffness of muscle-tendon units (MTU). Upon investigating the acute effects of SS, several previous studies reported increased ROM 1 , 2 and decreased passive

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Nathan F. Johnson, Chloe Hutchinson, Kaitlyn Hargett, Kyle Kosik and Phillip Gribble

accessible, and of tolerable intensities for older adults. Static stretching, the act of inducing sustained soft tissue deformation through static holds, meets all of these criteria and can be safely administered in the presence of many comorbidities. Flexibility is a modifiable risk factor easily assessed