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Theresa E. Gildner, J. Josh Snodgrass, Clare Evans and Paul Kowal

participation in social or leisure activities, resulting in feelings of isolation ( Blazer, 2003 ). Although the mental health benefits of high physical function are relatively well studied in high-income countries, it is unclear whether specific functional measures are similarly linked with subjective well

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Iñigo Mujika

& Laursen, 2017 ). The aim of this case study was to report on the performance outcomes and subjective assessments of long-term (32 weeks) LCHF diet in a world-class, lacto-ovo vegetarian long-distance triathlete who had been suffering from GI problems in Ironman competition (e.g., malabsorption of

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Jill Borresen and Michael I. Lambert

Purpose:

To establish the relationship between a subjective (session rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) and 2 objective (training impulse [TRIMP]) and summated-heart-rate-zone (SHRZ) methods of quantifying training load and explain characteristics of the variance not accounted for in these relationships.

Methods:

Thirty-three participants trained ad libitum for 2 wk, and their heart rate (HR) and RPE were recorded to calculate training load. Subjects were divided into groups based on whether the regression equations over- (OVER), under- (UNDER), or accurately predicted (ACCURATE) the relationship between objective and subjective methods.

Results:

A correlation of r = .76 (95% CI: .56 to .88) occurred between TRIMP and session-RPE training load. OVER spent a greater percentage of training time in zone 4 of SHRZ (ie, 80% to 90% HRmax) than UNDER (46% ± 8% vs 25% ± 10% [mean ± SD], P = .008). UNDER spent a greater percentage of training time in zone 1 of SHRZ (ie, 50% to 60% HRmax) than OVER (15% ± 8% vs 3% ± 3%, P = .005) and ACCURATE (5% ± 3%, P = .020) and more time in zone 2 of SHRZ (ie, 60% to 70%HRmax) than OVER (17% ± 6% vs 7% ± 6%, P = .039). A correlation of r = .84 (.70 to .92) occurred between SHRZ and session-RPE training load. OVER spent proportionally more time in Zone 4 than UNDER (45% ± 8% vs 25% ± 10%, P = .018). UNDER had a lower training HR than ACCURATE (132 ± 10 vs 148 ± 12 beats/min, P = .048) and spent more time in zone 1 than OVER (15% ± 8% vs 4% ± 3%, P = .013) and ACCURATE (5% ± 3%, P = .015).

Conclusions:

The session-RPE method provides reasonably accurate assessments of training load compared with HR-based methods, but they deviate in accuracy when proportionally more time is spent training at low or high intensity.

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Jessica Francombe

Driven by a desire to interrogate and articulate the role and place of the body in the study of sport, this paper encourages those who are incited by a richer understanding of the physical to expand and elaborate upon the fleshy figuration that guides the research projects and practices/strategies of the present. This call for papers is an opportunity to unpack the methodological impetus of “body work” (Giardina & Newman, 2011a) and to locate it within the nexus of dialogues that expressly seek to reengage an eclectic body politic at precisely the time when the body is a site of continuous scrutinizing and scientific confession. As researchers we grapple with and problematize method(ologies) in light of the conjunctural demands placed upon our scholarship and so I reflect on a recently conducted project and the methodological moments that it brought to light. Conceptualized in terms of a physical performative pedagogy of subjectivity, I tentatively forward a discussion of what moving methods might look and feel like and thus I question why, when we research into physical, sporting, (in)active experiences, do we refrain from putting the body to work? Why do we not theorize the body through the moving body?

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Michelle T. Helstein

This article draws on the work of two poststructural theorists, Michel Foucault and Jacques Lacan, to illustrate that although it is possible to posit identity from an exclusively discursive account (Foucault) or an exclusively psychoanalytic account (Lacan), it is necessary to put such accounts into conversation to more productively engage in the process of identification. Through use of an advertisement (in which a female athlete sees herself in a mirror) and an analogy to the scientific laws of reflection, this article illustrates that in order to see oneself (identify) one must recognize something in, on, or through their body, and this recognition of the body is always a misrecognition that might more appropriately be called identification. This article is therefore a reading of identification through the productive exploration of the woman on both sides of the mirror, highlighting both discursive and psychoanalytic accounts of her subjectivity. The pervasiveness of the body within these accounts is notable because it highlights the possibilities of the body as a point of articulation between discursive and psychic accounts of identification. The article also illustrates that even when identity is acknowledge as constructed, fragmented, and multiple, it is still meaningful, material, and political.

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Johan Caudroit, Yannick Stephan, Aina Chalabaev and Christine Le Scanff

Objective:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship between subjective age and intention to engage in physical activity (PA) among active older adults. It was expected that subjective age would be positively related to PA intention because it is positively associated with self-efficacy.

Method:

A cross-sectional study was conducted with 170 older adults age 60–80 years (M = 66.10, SD = 4.78) who completed measures of subjective age, self-efficacy, behavioral intention, self-rated health, and past PA.

Results:

Bootstrap procedure revealed that self-efficacy partially mediated the positive relationship between feeling younger than one’s age and PA intention, while chronological age, self-rated health, and past PA were controlled.

Discussion:

These results emphasize the need to consider both subjective and objective components of age as correlates of social-cognitive determinants of health behavior.

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Shannon L. Mihalko and Edward McAuley

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine (a) the effects of upper body high-intensity strength training on muscular strength, activities of daily living (ADLs), and subjective well-being within an aging population, and (b) whether changes in strength were related to subsequent changes in subjective well-being and ADLs. The main effects of the training program were significant for all five individual muscle groups examined, indicating that subjects who participated in the strength program had greater increases in muscular strength than did controls. There was limited support for the contention that strength training enhances subjective well-being and ADLs in older adults. Strength gains were related to moderate reductions in negative affect, greater satisfaction with life, and higher ADLs. Findings are discussed in terms of design and measurement improvements, the need to focus research efforts on multiple components of fitness in relation to subjective well-being, and relations among strength and ADLs in the elderly.

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Aphrodite Stathi, Kenneth R. Fox and James McKenna

Using a qualitative approach, the dimensions of subjective well-being of active older adults were outlined and ways identified through which they might be influenced by participation in physical activities. One-to-one and group interviews were used to collect the data. Using cross-case analysis, 17 main themes were identified. The following main dimensions emerged: developmental, material, physical, mental, and social well-being. The findings indicated that physical activity influences all dimensions of the subjective well-being of older adults, with the exception of material well-being. Physical activity appears to contribute to the mental health of older adults through maintenance of a busy and active life, mental alertness, positive attitude toward life and avoidance of stress, negative function, and isolation. The complexity of subjective well-being and the multiple roles of physical activity stress the need to extend qualitative research to sedentary older adults and the institutionalized elderly to explore the relationship between well-being and physical activity in later life.

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Remco Polman, Naomi Rowcliffe, Erika Borkoles and Andrew Levy

This study investigated the nature of the relationship between precompetitive state anxiety (CSAI-2C), subjective (race position) and objective (satisfaction) performance outcomes, and self-rated causal attributions (CDS-IIC) for performance in competitive child swimmers. Race position, subjective satisfaction, self-confidence, and, to a lesser extent, cognitive state anxiety (but not somatic state anxiety) were associated with the attributions provided by the children for their swimming performance. The study partially supported the self-serving bias hypothesis; winners used the ego-enhancing attributional strategy, but the losers did not use an ego-protecting attributional style. Age but not gender appeared to influence the attributions provided in achievement situations.

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Pirkko Markula

There has been a longstanding divide between the sociology and psychology of exercise despite common interests in individual subjectivity and identity construction through exercise practices. In this paper, I aim to find possible intersections for the two disciplines by using theoretical insights from discursive and critical psychology as well as sociocultural research on embodied experiences in exercise. Drawing from both psychological and sociocultural research on exercising bodies, I problematize different conceptualizations of subjectivity, identity, and power relations to critically examine interconnections between these different research traditions. I also highlight some of their theoretical limitations to suggest further theoretical readings that might enhance interdisciplinary analyses of change emanating from the microlevel of individual actions by both psychological and sociocultural research on the physically active body.