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Deepika Singla and M. Ejaz Hussain

obtained were used for the final data analysis (BBrms and TBrms for BB and TB, respectively). Surface electrodes were attached following the surface electromyography for the noninvasive assessment of muscles recommendations. 25 Upper Body Balance Upper quarter Y balance test (UQYBT) measures an individual

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Isabelle Rogowski, David Rouffet, Frédéric Lambalot, Olivier Brosseau and Christophe Hautier

This study compared EMG activity of young tennis players’ muscles during forehand drives in two groups, GD—those able to raise by more than 150% the vertical velocity of racket-face at impact from flat to topspin forehand drives, and GND, those not able to increase their vertical velocity to the same extent. Upper limb joint angles, racket-face velocities, and average EMGrms values, were studied. At similar joint angles, a fall in horizontal velocity and a rise in racket-face vertical velocity from flat to topspin forehand drives were observed. Shoulder muscle activity rose from flat to topspin forehand drives in GND, but not for drives in GD. Forearm muscle activity reduced from flat to topspin forehand drives in GD, but muscle activation was similar in GND. The results show that radial deviation increased racket-face vertical velocity more at impact from the flat to topspin forehand drives than shoulder abduction.

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Gareth Ryan, Heather Johnston and Janice Moreside

which ER was performed (7 levels: 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°). Dependent variables were average and peak muscle activation for each of the infraspinatus, middle deltoid, posterior deltoid, and INFRA/PD. Procedures Surface electromyography (SEMG) was performed on the dominant shoulder (eg

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Afshin Samani and Mathias Kristiansen

frequently applied algorithms to derive muscle synergies, nonnegative matrix factorization, decomposes a matrix containing the surface electromyography (EMG) of multiple muscles into a product of a time-invariant component termed “muscle synergy vectors” and a time-variant component termed “synergy

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Nicola Marotta, Andrea Demeco, Gerardo de Scorpio, Angelo Indino, Teresa Iona and Antonio Ammendolia

from surface electromyography and inertial sensor were collected at 1000 Hz by an appropriate software (EMG analyzer; BTS Bioengineering Corp) to determine the onset of muscle activity for each muscle when the testing foot came into contact with the ground and to quantify the time of the preactivation

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Komeil Dashti Rostami, Aynollah Naderi and Abbey Thomas

for Surface Electromyography. 36 Two electrodes were used for each muscle and a ground electrode was placed in the S2 lumbar vertebra. For the GMED, the electrodes were placed at 50% of the distance between the iliac crest and the greater trochanter of the femur. For AL, the electrodes were placed on

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Jun-Seok Kim, Moon-Hwan Kim, Duk-Hyun Ahn and Jae-Seop Oh

to activate scapular upward rotators in people with scapular winging: an experimental study . J Physiother . 2011 ; 57 ( 2 ): 101 – 107 . PubMed ID: 21684491 doi:10.1016/S1836-9553(11)70020-0 10.1016/S1836-9553(11)70020-0 21684491 30. Criswell E . Cram’s Introduction to Surface Electromyography

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Graeme G. Sorbie, Fergal M. Grace, Yaodong Gu, Julien S. Baker and Ukadike C. Ugbolue

their assistance with the Myon 320 system during the early stages of the project. References 1. Norali A , Som M . Surface electromyography signal processing and application: a review . Proceedings of the International Conference on Man-Machine Systems (ICoMMS) ; 2009 . 2. Dickerson CR

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Chadwick Debison-Larabie, Bernadette A. Murphy and Michael W.R. Holmes

surface electromyography system (Trigno™; Delsys Inc, Natick, MA). These muscles were chosen because the SCM acts bilaterally as a prime mover for neck flexion and unilaterally in ipsilateral neck lateral bend and contralateral rotation, whereas the SPC is the most superficial extensor muscle, creating

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Ricardo Pires, Thays Falcari, Alexandre B. Campo, Bárbara C. Pulcineli, Joseph Hamill and Ulysses Fernandes Ervilha

comprehensive measurement approach . Int J Sports Med . 1987 ; 8 ( 3 ): 196 – 202 . PubMed ID: 3623781 doi:10.1055/s-2008-1025655 10.1055/s-2008-1025655 3623781 6. Hermens HJ , Merletti R , Rix H , Freriks B . The State of the Art on Signal Processing Methods for Surface Electromyography