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Steven Loy

Citizens program, now known as 3 WINS Fitness ( www.3winsfitness.com ), based on the premise of involving students so they could understand the power they had to make world-altering change. The research is definitive. A program of community physical activity must be sustainable, accessible, and scalable

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Kathleen F. Janz and Shelby L. Francis

Although there is strong and consistent evidence that childhood and adolescent physical activity is osteogenic, the evidence concerning its sustained effects to adult bone health is not conclusive. Therefore the value of interventions, in addition to beneficial bone adaptation, could be exposure to activities children enjoy and therefore continue. As such, interventions should provide skills, pleasure, and supportive environments to ensure continued bone-strengthening physical activity with age. Until the dose-response as well as timing of physical activity to bone health is more fully understood, it is sensible to assume that physical activity is needed throughout the lifespan to improve and maintain skeletal health. Current federal guidelines for health-related physical activity, which explicitly recommend bone-strengthening physical activities for youth, should also apply to adults.

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Lisa T. Washburn, Carol E. Cornell, Martha Phillips, Holly Felix and LaVona Traywick

Background:

The effect of volunteer lay leaders on availability and sustainability of strength-training programs for older adults has not been well explored. We describe implementation of the StrongWomen strength training program by the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, and report on the relationship between delivery approach (agent-led, lay-led, or combination of agent- and lay-led) and program access and sustainability.

Methods:

All state Extension agents (n = 66) were surveyed on program implementation, continuance, and use of lay leaders. Program records were used to identify the number of trained lay leaders. Regression models were used to examine the relationship between delivery approach and group availability.

Results:

Counties using lay leaders had twice as many groups as counties using only agents. There was a significant, positive relationship between the number of lay leaders and the number of groups. Counties using lay leaders were 8.3 times more likely to have continuing groups compared with counties not using lay leaders.

Conclusions:

Program continuance was significantly and positively associated with lay leader use. Lay delivery expanded access to strength training programs and increased the likelihood that programs would continue. This approach can be used to increase access to and sustainability of strength training programs, particularly in resource-constrained areas.

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Steven Loy

3 WINS Fitness is a student-delivered free exercise program for the community delivered in public parks. We believe this program, which operates without external funding and has been sustained for 6 years, is one significant solution to reducing the level of physical inactivity in the United States. The operative 3 WINS in our program are participant health, community health, and student professional development. The primary focus has been underserved communities, and our current eight programs in Los Angeles, serve over 300 participants regularly. Three challenges to the program are student empowerment, faculty understanding and involvement, and establishing the relationship between university and parks, which represent a vital partnership. However, the accomplishment of undergraduate students having such a dynamic impact on public health underscores the need for encouraging this sustainable and innovative strategy to increase the physical activity levels of communities across America.

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Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen and Øyvind Sandbakk

of helping an overtrained athlete to regain sustainable high performance. In a recent study, we investigated the longitudinal training characteristics of the world’s best female XC skier. 4 After being the world’s highest ranked female XC skier from 2004 to 2006, the athlete experienced a critical

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Maureen R. Weiss and Kirsten M. Frazer

Research on motivation to participate in physical activity has typically been characterized by an assessment of reasons for involvement at a single point in time. This study examined motives for participating, self-perceptions (perceived success, perceived basketball competence, perceived peer acceptance), and enjoyment several times during a sport season relative to player status (Le., amount of playing time). Female basketball players (N = 141) completed measures of participation motivation, perceptions of physical competence and peer acceptance, success, and enjoyment at preseason, midseason, and end of season. Players were classified as starters, primary substitutes, or secondary substitutes by their coaches based on extent of actual playing time. All athletes were similar in their reasons for participating; these included mastery, friends, team atmosphere, and fitness. However, starters and primary substitutes were higher than secondary substitutes in perceptions of success, basketball competence, peer acceptance, and enjoyment at midseason, and starters were higher than primary and secondary substitutes on perceived basketball competence at end of season. These results suggest that positive self-perceptions and affect experienced in the physical domain are related to players ’ opportunities to demonstrate competence in salient achievement areas.

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Eric D.B. Goulet, Michel O. Mélançon, Mylène Aubertin Leheudre and Isabelle J. Dionne

It is unclear whether long-term aerobic (AT) or resistance (RT) training can improve insulin sensitivity (IS) beyond the residual effect of the last training bout in older women (54–78 years). Therefore, a group of nonobese, healthy older women underwent 6 months of AT (n = 8) or RT (n = 10), and the authors measured IS 4 days after the last training bouts using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique. Women trained 3 days/week. AT consisted of 25- to 60-min sessions of walking/jogging at 60–95% of maximal heart rate. RT consisted of three sets of nine exercises repeated 10 times at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. AT decreased fat mass, whereas both AT and RT increased fat-free mass. Neither training program, however, improved absolute or relative rates of glucose disposal. The authors therefore concluded that nonobese, healthy older women should perform AT or RT on a daily basis in order to improve IS and maintain the improvement.

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Andrew Cruickshank, Dave Collins and Sue Minten

Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director–led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.

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Takeshi Hirano, Kazutoshi Kudo, Tatsuyuki Ohtsuki and Hiroshi Kinoshita

This study investigated activity of the embouchure-related orofacial muscles during pre- and postattack phases of sound production by 10 trained French-horn players. Surface electromyogram (EMG) from five selected facial muscles, and related facial skin kinematics were examined in relation to pitch and intensity of a tone produced. No difference in EMGs and facial kinematics between the two phases was found, indicating importance of appropriate formation of preattack embouchure. EMGs in all muscles during the postattack phase increased linearly with an increase in pitch, and they also increased with tone intensity without interacting with the pitch effect. Orofacial skin movement remained constant across all pitches and intensities except for lateral retraction of the lips during high-pitch tone production. Contraction of the orofacial muscles is fundamentally isometric by which tension on the lips and the cheeks is regulated for flexible sound parameter control.

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Paul Keiper and Richard B. Kreider

Online education has become an increasingly popular means of delivering educational programs in health and kinesiology. It has helped departments meet increasing enrollment demands and provided additional resources that support students and faculty. A number of challenges, however, are associated with developing these types of programs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the issues that Texas A&M University has experienced in developing extensive online courses and distance education programs. The paper discusses methods and models employed to develop online and distance programs in health and kinesiology and provides a case study of some of the opportunities and challenges that the Sport Management Division experienced in developing an online master's program. Issues related to efficacy, management, funding, and student success are discussed. Health and kinesiology administrators should consider these issues as they look to develop or grow online course offerings in the discipline.