Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director–led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.
Andrew Cruickshank, Dave Collins and Sue Minten
Eric D.B. Goulet, Michel O. Mélançon, Mylène Aubertin Leheudre and Isabelle J. Dionne
It is unclear whether long-term aerobic (AT) or resistance (RT) training can improve insulin sensitivity (IS) beyond the residual effect of the last training bout in older women (54–78 years). Therefore, a group of nonobese, healthy older women underwent 6 months of AT (n = 8) or RT (n = 10), and the authors measured IS 4 days after the last training bouts using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique. Women trained 3 days/week. AT consisted of 25- to 60-min sessions of walking/jogging at 60–95% of maximal heart rate. RT consisted of three sets of nine exercises repeated 10 times at 80% of 1 repetition maximum. AT decreased fat mass, whereas both AT and RT increased fat-free mass. Neither training program, however, improved absolute or relative rates of glucose disposal. The authors therefore concluded that nonobese, healthy older women should perform AT or RT on a daily basis in order to improve IS and maintain the improvement.
Paul Keiper and Richard B. Kreider
Online education has become an increasingly popular means of delivering educational programs in health and kinesiology. It has helped departments meet increasing enrollment demands and provided additional resources that support students and faculty. A number of challenges, however, are associated with developing these types of programs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some of the issues that Texas A&M University has experienced in developing extensive online courses and distance education programs. The paper discusses methods and models employed to develop online and distance programs in health and kinesiology and provides a case study of some of the opportunities and challenges that the Sport Management Division experienced in developing an online master's program. Issues related to efficacy, management, funding, and student success are discussed. Health and kinesiology administrators should consider these issues as they look to develop or grow online course offerings in the discipline.
Jason Flindall, Scott Sinnett and Alan Kingstone
The length of the last visual fixation before the critical final phase of a movement—the quiet eye (QE) fixation—is positively correlated with expertise and success. The present study tested the potential for intraskill transfer of QE durations in order to determine whether it is intrinsically linked to expertise development or is a separable skill that may be employed to improve performance under novel circumstances. The authors tracked highly skilled dart throwers’ gazes while they executed familiar (highly practiced) and familiar yet novel (distance/effector-modified) sport-specific actions. QE duration was significantly reduced when performing in unfamiliar conditions, suggesting that QE does not transfer to atypical conditions and may therefore be a result of—rather than a contributor to—expertise development. These results imply that intraskill transfer of QE is limited and, consistent with the inhibition hypothesis of QE development, argue against the value of teaching QE as an independent means of improving performance.
Pablo A. Domene, Michelle Stanley and Glykeria Skamagki
sustaining an injury, and (3) calculate the injury incidence rate in nonprofessional salsa dance using an anonymous web-based 1-year retrospective injury history survey. It was hypothesized that being female 16 and having a higher age, 16 higher volume of salsa dance engagement per week, 16 higher volume
Melinda Forthofer, Sara Wilcox, Deborah Kinnard, Brent Hutto and Patricia A. Sharpe
, where residents experience disproportionate risk of chronic diseases 2 – 5 and greater barriers to sustaining PA. 6 Effective PA interventions tailored to the needs of such communities are needed. 7 , 8 Previous evidence points to the importance of social support (eg, family, friend, church, or
Chih-Hsiang Yang and David E. Conroy
). These findings point to the need for preventive interventions to help older adults alleviate negative affect, improve well-being, and in turn sustain better mental and physical health. Engaging in regular physical activity and mindfulness practice have both been introduced as promising strategies to
James J. Annesi
sustain such changes are unknown. Because only 3 sessions per week of low–moderate PA have been associated with significant initial reductions in negative mood 4 and a dose–response (PA–mood) relationship is not apparent, 5 theories attributing those psychosocial improvements to mostly associated
Athina Liacos, Angela T. Burge, Narelle S. Cox and Anne E. Holland
interview comments were recorded and subsequently transcribed. Responses to interviews were grouped into major and minor themes. Major themes Four major themes were identified: (a) the importance of regular exercise, (b) acknowledgement that regular exercise requires a sustained lifestyle change, (c
Ellen Freiberger, Elisabeth Rydwik, Astrid Chorus, Erwin Tak, Christophe Delecluse, Federico Schena, Nina Waaler, Bob Laventure and Nico van Meeteren
functioning ( Tak, Kuiper, Chorus, & Hopman-Rock, 2013 ). Challenge: Dissemination and Implementation for Increasing Physical Activity Population-level changes in physical activity, including among older persons, will require public and private partnerships, collaborations and actions sustained, in some cases