The professional team sports industry has consistently worked at constructing a symbiotic relationship in the collective American mind linking professional team sports with United States patriotism. Professional team sports organizations use a variety of advertising images, rituals, and ceremonies to reinforce this association. One means by which the organizations perpetuate this association is through league logos, all of which use only the colors red, white, and blue—the precise color combination found on the flag of the United States. League logos are prominently displayed on all their licensed merchandise, merchandise that generates about $10 billion in annual revenue for professional team sports. This paper focuses on the contradiction or paradox that exists between the imagery of All-American patriotism professional team sports construct and the fact that much of their licensed merchandise is manufactured in foreign countries by exploited labor. The analysis centers on meaning-production by deconstructing and critiquing the managed image of professional team sport organizations.
Toni Liechty, Fleesha Willfong and Katherine Sveinson
The purpose of this study was to explore the embodied nature of empowerment among women who play tackle football. Data collection involved semistructured interviews with 15 female football players in Western Canada. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Three themes emerged from the data suggesting that playing football was empowering as women experienced: a) feelings of strength related to the physicality of the game; b) a sense of breaking boundaries as they participated despite challenges; and c) a sense of belonging to the team which led to positive outcomes such as increased confidence and selfacceptance. The findings of this study highlight the embodied nature of empowerment that comes through participation in sport and characteristics of contact team sport that can facilitate empowerment for women.
Michela Musto and P.J. McGann
The apologetic strategies women employ to manage the cultural tension between athleticism and hegemonic femininity are well documented. Existing research, however, tends to be small-scale. The cumulative symbolic implications of female athlete appearance on cultural ideals remain under-theorized as a result. Our quantitative content analysis of a stratified, random sample of 4,799 collegiate women athletes’ roster photos examined whether sport, school type, and geographical location are related to gendered appearance. Despite important contextual variation, we found overwhelming homogeneity across settings. Our results suggest that the normalization of women’s athleticism is limited and depends on subordinated femininities. Thus, despite some positive changes, team sport still helps stabilize and naturalize the gender order.
Mallory Mann and Vikki Krane
While recent studies paint an optimistic picture of acceptance and inclusion of queer athletes, it would be naive to assume homonegativism no longer exists. In this study, we interviewed 13 queer female athletes to understand their college team sport climates and how heteronormativity is reinforced and confronted in women’s college sport. Using a feminist cultural studies approach, two types of team climates emerged from the data: inclusive climates and transitioning climates. On inclusive teams, queer and heterosexual members overtly communicated their norm of inclusion to new teammates, normalized diverse sexualities, and consistently engaged in inclusive behaviors. Transitioning teams were described as neither inclusive nor hostile initially, and, while they did not have a history of inclusion, they transitioned to becoming more outwardly accepting of diverse sexual identities. On transitioning teams, queer athletes surveyed the landscape before sharing their sexual orientation, after which the team evolved to become inclusive. All the athletes talked about awkward moments, occasional incidents of nonsupport, and the benefits of inclusion. These findings reveal emerging cracks in hegemonic heteronormativity in women’s sport, especially among athletes.
boys’ schools, similar to its development in Britain, and then moved into universities and downward to secondary and eventually primary schools as the 20 th century progressed. Certain sports were favored—especially the team sport of baseball—and these gained character-building and school reputation
Claire-Marie Roberts and Jacky Forsyth
female-specific nuances of sport and exercise, including many excellent studies that addressed important topics such as using exercise to decrease hot flushes in breast cancer patients ( France, Brislane, Holcome, Low, & Jones, 2018 ), homophobia in female team sport ( Bullingham & Roberts, 2018 ), and
their strengths, they might be more willing to rise up and play at another level.” Setting individual and team goals, establishing leadership roles, and cultivating a cohesive atmosphere are all essential elements of team sport. One way in which individuals and coaches can align such priorities is to
Kelsey Dow, Robert Pritchett, Karen Roemer and Kelly Pritchett
semiprofessional rugby league players . Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20 ( 1 ), 222 – 225 . PubMed ID: 16503685 Cockburn , E. , Bell , P.G. , & Stevenson , E. ( 2013 ). Effect of milk on team sport performance after exercise-induced muscle damage . Medicine & Science in Sports
Matthew R. Hodler
Amateur Ideal, 1925-1930,” Olympika XXIII (2014): 1–26. 28. Mark Dyreson, Making the American Team: Sport, Culture, and the Olympic Experience (Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 1998). 29. John Gleaves, “Doped Professionals and Clean Amateurs: Amateurism’s Influence on the Modern Philosophy of
Hans C. Rasmussen
Orleanians already had a team sport that effectively replicated the rough play, rugby-like scrums, and oscillating motion of raquette. Modern American football emerged in New Orleans among private athletic clubs and students at Tulane University in the early 1890s, about the same time it was catching on