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Walter Gantz and Lawrence A. Wenner

Employing a uses and gratifications paradigm, we expected that audience experience with televised sports would vary on the basis of fanship, with fans having a qualitatively different, deeper, and more textured set of expectations and responses than nonfans. Fans were expected to respond in similar ways, regardless of gender. Telephone interviews were completed with 707 adults residing in Los Angeles and Indianapolis. Fanship was operationalized using cognitive, affective, and behavioral bases. In this study, fanship made a difference, with fans clearly more invested in the viewing experience. Male and female sports fans reacted and responded in almost identical ways, although men generally were an insignificant shade more involved than women. However, since more males are fans, the televised sports viewing experience in many households may not be shared, even when husbands and wives watch the same TV sports program.

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Steven N. Blair, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

, & Chinapaw, 2011 ). It can be commonly interpreted as physical inactivity; however, sedentary behavior is not physical inactivity by a different name ( van der Ploeg & Hillsdon, 2017 ). Although television (TV) viewing may not be considered a proxy of overall sedentary behavior, it is the most common

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Adam C. Earnheardt

The extent to which television viewers are fans of sports and their motivation for viewing sports may affect their judgments of athletes’ antisocial behaviors. The uses and gratifications theoretical framework guided exploration of possible predictors of judgments. The sample (N = 347) consisted of sports television viewers. Fandom correlated significantly with motives for viewing televised sports, parasocial interaction, and identification. Fandom was negatively related to judgments of violent crime behaviors and uncharitable/dishonest behaviors. Women who were engaged in other activities while viewing televised sports were more likely to judge violent crime behaviors as most wrong, or negatively. Additional analyses suggested that women who reported lower degrees of fandom, weaker affinity for televised sports, weaker intention to watch sports, weaker self-esteem/achievement and entertaining relaxation motives, and paying less attention to televised sports were the viewers who tended to judge athletes’ violent crime behaviors, uncharitable behaviors, and drug- and steroid-use behaviors as most wrong.

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Margaret MacNeill

This paper presents an ethnographic study of the Canadian Television Network’s (CTV) production of the 1988 Winter Olympic ice-hockey tournament. Interview data and media documents are analyzed to uncover how CTV strategically employed hockey as a spectacle of accumulation to boost ratings, expand market positioning, and to attract sponsors while blocking media competitors. At another level of understanding, ethnographic observations of the televisual labor process provide insights into how Olympic broadcasting constitutes a form of mediated communication or a spectacle of legitimation. Observations illustrate how the crew remade the live sporting event into a series of select cultural images. The manufacturing of Olympic images is revealed to be a social process that reproduces select systems of meaning, reinforces particular modes of media production, and strengthens monopolistic network relationships.

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André O. Werneck, Edilson S. Cyrino, Paul J. Collings, Enio R.V. Ronque, Célia L. Szwarcwald, Luís B. Sardinha and Danilo R. Silva

equivalents while in a sitting or reclining posture, 2 has been shown to exhibit associations with cardiovascular disease and mortality. 3 , 4 Levels of television (TV) viewing are known to be high in Brazilian adults, 5 but the population distribution of TV viewing has not thoroughly been investigated

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Katherine L. Downing, Jo Salmon, Anna Timperio, Trina Hinkley, Dylan P. Cliff, Anthony D. Okely and Kylie D. Hesketh

Sedentary behavior refers to activities undertaken in a sitting or lying position and requiring minimal energy expenditure, 1 for example, sitting down watching television (TV) or reading. There is increasing evidence that sedentary behavior, particularly sedentary screen time, is associated with

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Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Liesbeth De Donder, Peter Clarys, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Neville Owen, Sarah Dury, Nico De Witte, Tine Buffel, Dominique Verté and Benedicte Deforche

Sedentary behaviors (involving prolonged sitting) can be associated detrimentally with health outcomes. Older adults, the most sedentary age group, are especially at risk due to their high levels of television viewing time. This study examined individual, social, and physical environmental correlates of older adults’ television viewing. Data on daily television viewing time, plus individual, social, and physical environmental factors were collected from 50,986 noninstitutionalized older adults (≥ 65 years) in Flanders (Belgium). The results showed significant relationships between television viewing time and individual, social, and physical environmental factors. Subgroups at risk for high levels of television viewing were those who were functionally limited, less educated, widowed, and (semi)urban-dwelling older adults. Our findings illustrate a cross-sectional link between older adults’ television viewing time and social composition of their neighborhood, formal participation, access to alternative activities, and safety from crime.

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Janet E. Fulton, Xuewen Wang, Michelle M. Yore, Susan A. Carlson, Deborah A. Galuska and Carl J. Caspersen

Background:

To examine the prevalence of television (TV) viewing, computer use, and their combination and associations with demographic characteristics and body mass index (BMI) among U.S. youth.

Methods:

The 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used. Time spent yesterday sitting and watching television or videos (TV viewing) and using the computer or playing computer games (computer use) were assessed by questionnaire.

Results:

Prevalence (%) of meeting the U.S. objective for TV viewing (≤2 hours/day) ranged from 65% to 71%. Prevalence of no computer use (0 hours/day) ranged from 23% to 45%. Non-Hispanic Black youth aged 2 to 15 years were less likely than their non-Hispanic White counterparts to meet the objective for TV viewing. Overweight or obese school-age youth were less likely than their normal weight counterparts to meet the objective for TV viewing

Conclusions:

Computer use is prevalent among U.S. youth; more than half of youth used a computer on the previous day. The proportion of youth meeting the U.S. objective for TV viewing is less than the target of 75%. Time spent in sedentary behaviors such as viewing TV may contribute to overweight and obesity among U.S. youth.

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Melody Oliver, Scott Duncan, Celia Kuch, Julia McPhee and Grant Schofield

Background:

Aims were to investigate sex, ethnicity, and age differences in achieving daily step count and television (TV) watching recommendations in schoolchildren.

Methods:

Participants were 615 children (n = 325) and adolescents (n = 290) aged 5 to 16 years. Activity was assessed over 5 days using pedometers; TV time was collected via parental proxy-report and self-report. Ethnic, sex, and age differences in step counts, TV time, and odds of meeting TV and step count recommendations were examined for weekdays, weekend days, and overall using generalized estimation equation modeling.

Results:

Overall, boys were more active than girls (P < .001). Adolescents were more active than children (P = .044), watched more TV (P = .005), and were less likely to meet TV watching recommendations (P = .004). Non-European children watched significantly more TV (P = .008), and were significantly less likely to meet TV recommendations than non-European children (P = .001). Participants watched more TV and accumulated less steps on weekend days than weekdays.

Conclusions:

Multifaceted interventions focusing on both increasing activity and decreasing TV time are needed, especially on weekends. Children and girls may benefit more from activity interventions, while ethnic-specific interventions focusing on TV habits may be most efficacious for adolescents.

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Gerson Luis de Moraes Ferrari, Timoteo Leandro Araujo, Luis Oliveira, Victor Matsudo, Emily Mire, Tiago V. Barreira, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

Studies have found an association between television (TV) viewing and physical activity levels. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between TV viewing and physical activity in 10-year-old Brazilian children.

Methods:

The sample consisted of 485 children. Self-reported TV viewing on weekdays and weekends was assessed by questionnaire. An Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to monitor the range of physical activity intensities (including moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; MVPA), sedentary behavior (SB) and steps/day over 7 days.

Results:

Daily MVPA was highest among children viewing TV <1 hour/day (69 min) compared with children viewing 1 to 2 hours/day (61 min), 3 to 4 hours/day (55 min) and ≥ 5 hours/day (59 min) on weekdays (P = .0015). Differences in MVPA were not observed across TV categories on weekends. The prevalence of reaching 60 min/day of MVPA and 12,000 steps/day on weekdays was significantly greater in children viewing ≤ 2 hours/day (51.7% and 23.5%, respectively) compared with those viewing > 2 hours/day (38.6%, P = .0058; and 15.1%, P = .0291, respectively). There was no difference in SB across TV viewing categories.

Conclusion:

Time spent in MVPA and the frequency of meeting MVPA guidelines were significantly higher among children viewing ≤ 2 hours/day of TV on weekdays compared with those viewing more.