The purpose of this study was to employ systems theory to analyze the social network of a Big Ten football team’s Twitter community. An identifiable network was found among the observed actors (N = 139), with fan accounts composing the largest percentage of the network. The number of observed reciprocal interactions was low, only 11.8% of the interactions and only 21.5% of the nodes. Traditionalmedia accounts frequently interacted with other media accounts, while fans interacted primarily with other fans. Overall, nontraditional-media accounts’ users were most focused on interactivity. Team-related accounts were almost nonexistent in the interactive network. A systems-theory-based network was found in terms of input, transformation, and output components. The feedback loop was the weak link in the network, indicating a possible lack of importance of direct feedback in Twitter social networks.
Galen Clavio, Lauren M. Burch and Evan L. Frederick
Jon Welty Peachey, Nico Schulenkorf and Ramon Spaaij
Practice cannot be blind to theory, and theory cannot be blind to practice. This is simple to say yet immensely difficult to do. ( Morrison & van der Werf, 2012 , p. 400) Theory development around sport for social change agendas has received greater attention from scholars over the past 10 years
By Eric C. Schwarz and Jason D. Hunter. Published 2018 by Routledge , New York, NY. $52.95 . 354 pp. ISBN: 978-1-138-06158-3 The third edition of Advanced Theory and Practice in Sport Marketing is an excellent resource for both sport management faculty and students. Eric C. Schwarz and Jason D
Sarah Leberman and Farah Palmer
Mothers’ voices are often silent in leisure and sport literature. This research used domain theory (Layder, 1997, 2006) to highlight the varied social domains that influence the experiences of nine women as mothers and sport leaders in New Zealand. Semistructured interviews were conducted and analyzed for themes using Hyper-RESEARCH. The findings suggest that potential constraints regarding sport leadership included guilt, exhaustion and stress, social disapproval and organizational resistance to the presence of children in sport settings. These women negotiate these potential constraints and manage their multiple identities with passion for sport and leadership, strong support networks, and specific integrating/compartmentalizing strategies to create work-family-leisure balance. The participants accentuated the mutual benefits of motherhood and sport leadership for themselves and for those they influence, while focusing on changes they can bring about at the personal and interpersonal level. Organizational and institutional change was less forthcoming, but a critical mass of mothers in some sport settings was slowly creating a desire for change.
Lisa A. Kihl, Tim Richardson and Charles Campisi
The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explain how student-athletes are affected by an instance of academic corruption. Using a grounded theory approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Strauss & Corbin, 1998), multiple sources of data were collected and analyzed using the constant comparison method leading to theory generation. Findings revealed that student-athletes suffer three main consequences (negative treatment, sanctions, and a sense of loss) that lead to various harmful outcomes (e.g., distrust, embarrassment, dysfunctional relationships, stakeholder separation, anger, stress, and conflict). However, the consequences also created a positive outcome displayed through a dual consciousness of corruption (resiliency and empowerment). The results are compared with existing theoretical concepts and previous research associated with the outcomes of corruption. This theory adds to our knowledge of the nature of suffering experienced by student-athletes as a result of corruption and provides direction for future research and practice.
Brad Hill and B. Christine Green
Modified children’s sport programs are intended to increase opportunities for participation, skill acquisition, satisfaction, and enjoyment. Unfortunately, teams in modified programs sometimes consist of more players than can participate at any one time. Barker and Gump’s (1964) manning theory is used to analyze the effects of a modified children’s soccer program that excludes children from game participation by relegating them to the role of substitutes. Participant observation and interviews with coaches, parents, and players were conducted over 2 seasons. Findings are consistent with propositions from manning theory. Children’s teams provide a better social climate, more skill development, and greater enjoyment and satisfaction when teams are not allocated substitutes. These advantages are not reduced, and are sometimes elevated, when teams must sometimes play short handed. Administrative concerns about the potential risks of fielding teams without substitutes are found to be unwarranted, and the presence of substitutes restricts opportunities for youth-sport organizations to attract and retain members. These findings suggest a framework for the design and maintenance of modified children’s sport.
Earle F. Zeigler
Today sport and all other social institutions (e.g., religion, politics, finance) are confronted with the need to demonstrate that they are worthwhile and responsible. Sport managers should understand what sport’s status is and how and why such standing occurred. Difficult decisions, often ethical in nature, will have to be made as members of the sport management societies worldwide strive to continue developing this profession and discipline. These professionals need to decide to what extent they wish to live up to the broad ideals of the programs being promoted by public, semipublic, and private agencies for people of all types and ages. Those involved with professional preparation and scholarly endeavor urgently need a theory and a disciplinary model for administrative or managerial leadership of sport on a gradually improving, sound academic basis. Practitioners need an online service that provides them with scholarly applied findings as they seek to serve in the behaviorally oriented environment of today’s world.
Andre M. Andrijiw and Craig G. Hyatt
In an attempt to understand the lived experiences of those individuals who grew up within the fan region of one professional hockey team yet chose instead to identify with a nonlocal alternative, the authors interviewed 20 Ontario (Canada) based fans of distant National Hockey League teams. Utilizing Brewer’s (1991, 2003) theory of optimal distinctiveness to examine the stories of participants, it was found that these fans maintained their team allegiances over time because doing so allowed them to achieve feelings of both uniqueness and belongingness. Sport managers can help facilitate feelings of belongingness by utilizing various communication and marketing strategies to better recognize and include their distant fans. Such strategies should ultimately result in the strengthening of the fan-team bond.
Daniel S. Mason, Lucie Thibault and Laura Misener
This article discusses agency problems in sport organizations in which the same individuals are involved in both the management and control of decision making. We focus our analysis on the case of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) by reviewing the behavior of selected IOC members with regard to the bidding process for the Olympic Games and the resulting reform attempts made by the IOC in an effort to address issues of corruption. After a review of examples of corrupt behavior on the part of IOC members, agency theory is introduced to discuss IOC reforms and provide some suggestions for future reform. We propose incorporating other stakeholders (in addition to the IOC members), such as corporate partners, media conglomerates, and other members of the Olympic movement (e.g., athletes, coaches, officials), into management and control functions. More specifi cally, it is suggested that these stakeholders comprise a board that oversees the operations of the IOC (similar to the IOC’s current executive committee) and be given the ability to remove and/or sanction IOC members who act self-interestedly to the detriment of the Olympic movement. Thus, by delegating the control function of decision making to a board and the management function to internal agents, greater accountability for all organization members can be achieved.
Lisa Kihl and Tim Richardson
Individuals who are appointed the responsibility of managing a sport program following an instance of academic corruption endure various forms of harm that warrants investigation. Extending from our empirical study of the University of Minnesota’s incidence of academic corruption (Kihl, Richardson, & Campisi, 2008), this article provides an associated grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) of suffering that conceptualizes how a newly hired coaching staff is impacted. Using a grounded theory methodology, it was theorized that academic corruption causes a coaching staff to suffer four main consequences: sanctions, stakeholder separation, reform policies, and managing multiple roles. These consequences lead to various harmful outcomes (e.g., distrust, dysfunctional relationships, anger, stress, and conflict). The results are compared with existing research that assisted in the generation of a theory of suffering. This theory adds to our knowledge about the challenges a coaching staff experiences when administrating an intercollegiate basketball program during postcorruption.