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Kathleen A. Swanik, Stephen J. Thomas, Aaron H. Struminger, Kellie C. Huxel Bliven, John D. Kelly and Charles B. Swanik

Context:

Plyometric training is credited with providing benefits in performance and dynamic restraint. However, limited prospective data exist quantifying kinematic adaptations such as amortization time, glenohumeral rotation, and scapulothoracic position, which may underlie the efficacy of plyometric training for upper-extremity rehabilitation or performance enhancement.

Objective:

To measure upper-extremity kinematics and plyometric phase times before and after an 8-wk upper-extremity strength- and plyometric-training program.

Design:

Randomized pretest–posttest design.

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Participants:

40 recreationally active men (plyometric group, age 20.43 ± 1.40 y, height 180.00 ± 8.80 cm, weight 73.07 ± 7.21 kg; strength group, age 21.95 ± 3.40 y, height 173.98 ± 11.91 cm, weight 74.79 ± 13.55 kg).

Intervention:

Participants were randomly assigned to either a strength-training group or a strength- and plyometric-training group. Each participant performed the assigned training for 8 wk.

Main Outcome Measures:

Dynamic and static glenohumeral and scapular-rotation measurements were taken before and after the training programs. Dynamic measurement of scapular rotation and time spent in each plyometric phase (concentric, eccentric, and amortization) during a ball-toss exercise were recorded while the subjects were fitted with an electromagnetic tracking system. Static measures included scapular upward rotation at 3 different glenohumeral-abduction angles, glenohumeral internal rotation, and glenohumeral external rotation.

Results:

Posttesting showed that both groups significantly decreased the time spent in the amortization, concentric, and eccentric phases of a ball-toss exercise (P < .01). Both groups also exhibited significantly decreased static external rotation and increased dynamic scapular upward rotation after the training period (P < .01). The only difference between the training protocols was that the plyometric-training group exhibited an increase in internal rotation that was not present in the strength-training group (P < .01).

Conclusion:

These findings support the use of both upper-extremity plyometrics and strength training for reducing commonly identified upper-extremity-injury risk factors and improving upper-extremity performance.

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Benjamin Henry, Todd McLoda, Carrie L. Docherty and John Schrader

Context:

Peroneal reaction to sudden inversion has been determined to be too slow to overcome the joint motion. A focused plyometric training program may decrease the muscle's reaction time.

Objective:

To determine the effect of a 6-wk plyometric training program on peroneus longus reaction time.

Design:

Repeated measures.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

48 healthy volunteers (age 20.0 ± 1.2 y, height 176.1 ± 16.9 cm, weight 74.5 ± 27.9 kg) from a large Midwestern university. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a training group or a control group.

Interventions:

Independent variables were group at 2 levels (training and no training) and time at 2 levels (pretest and posttest). The dependent variable was peroneal latency measured with surface electromyography. A custom-made trapdoor device capable of inverting the ankle to 30° was also used. Latency data were obtained from the time the trapdoor dropped until the peroneus longus muscle activated. Peroneal latency was measured before and after the 6-wk training period. The no-training group was instructed to maintain current activities. The training group performed a 6-wk plyometric protocol 3 times weekly. Data were examined with a repeated-measures ANOVA with 1 within-subject factor (time at 2 levels) and 1 between-subjects factor (group at 2 levels). A priori alpha level was set at P < .05.

Main Outcome Measures:

Pretest and posttest latency measurements (ms) were recorded for the peroneus longus muscle.

Results:

The study found no significant group-by-time interaction (F 1,46 = 0.03, P = .87). In addition, there was no difference between the pretest and posttest values (pretest = 61.76 ± 14.81 ms, posttest = 59.24 ± 12.28 ms; P = .18) and no difference between the training and no-training groups (training group = 59.10 ± 12.18 ms, no-training group = 61.79 ± 15.18 ms; P = .43).

Conclusions:

Although latency measurements were consistent with previous studies, the plyometric training program did not cause significant change in the peroneus longus reaction time.

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Brent I. Smith, Denice Curtis and Carrie L. Docherty

Context : Deficits in ankle and hip strength and lower-extremity postural control are associated with chronic ankle instability (CAI). Following strength training, muscle groups demonstrate increased strength. This change is partially credited to improved neuromuscular control, and many studies have investigated ankle protocols for subjects with CAI. The effects of isolating hip musculature in strength training protocols in this population are not well understood. Objective: To examine the effects of hip strengthening on clinical and self-reported outcomes in patients with CAI. Design: Prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting: Athletic training facility. Participants: Twenty-six participants with CAI (12 males and 14 females; age = 20.9 [1.5] y, height = 170.0 [12.7] cm, and mass = 77.5 [17.5] kg) were randomly assigned to training or control groups. Intervention: Participants completed either 4 weeks of supervised hip strengthening (resistance bands 3 times a week) or no intervention. Main Outcome Measures: Participants were assessed on 4 clinical measures (Star Excursion Balance Test in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions; Balance Error Scoring System; hip external rotation strength; and hip abduction strength) and a patient-reported measure (the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure activities of daily living and sports subscales) before and after the 4-week training period. Results: The training group displayed significantly improved posttest measures compared with the control group for hip abduction strength (training: 446.3 [77.4] N, control: 314.7 [49.6] N, P < .01); hip external rotation strength (training: 222.1 [48.7] N, control: 169.4 [34.6] N, P < .01); Star Excursion Balance Test reach in the anterior (training: 93.1% [7.4%], control: 90.2% [7.9%], P < .01), posteromedial (training: 96.3% [8.9%], control: 88.0% [8.8%], P < .01), and posterolateral (training: 95.4% [11.1%], control: 86.6% [9.6%], P < .01) directions; Balance Error Scoring System total errors (training: 9.9 [6.3] errors, control: 21.2 [6.3] errors, P < .01); and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure-sports score (training: 88.0 [12.6], control: 84.8 [10.9], P < .01). Conclusion: Improved clinical and patient-reported outcomes in the training group suggest hip strengthening is beneficial in the management and prevention of recurrent symptoms associated with CAI.

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in Recreational Athletes with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Yukio Urabe * Mitsuo Ochi * Kiyoshi Onari * 11 2002 11 4 252 267 10.1123/jsr.11.4.252 Comparisons of Land-Based and Aquatic-Based Plyometric Programs during an 8-Week Training Period Michael G. Miller * David C. Berry

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Amanda Faith Casey and Claudia Emes

Reduced respiratory muscle strength in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) may affect speech respiratory variables such as maximum phonation duration (MPD), initiation volume, and expired mean airflow. Researchers randomly assigned adolescents with DS (N = 28) to either 12 weeks of swim training (DS-ST) or a control group (DS-NT). Repeated measures MANOVA demonstrated a significant increase in MPD for DS-ST participants from pretest to posttest, t(11) = –3.44, p = 0.006, that was not maintained at follow-up, t(11) = 6.680, p < .001. No significant change was observed for DS-NT participants across time, F(2, 11) = 4.20, p = 0.044. The lack of long-term change in DS-ST participants may be related to the relatively short training period.

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Gordon E. Marchiori, Albert E. Wall and E. Wendy Bedingfield

This study investigated the learning of the stationary hockey slap shot by two physically awkward boys; for comparison purposes, two age-matched boys performed the same skill. In an initial data collection session, the physically awkward and the control boys performed three successful slap shots. Following this, the physically awkward subjects practiced 400 trials at home every 2 weeks over a 6-week training period, under the supervision of their parents. Performance data were collected every 2 weeks, after 400, 800, and 1,200 practice trials. Cinematographic analysis of each subject’s three successful responses led to an examination of the kinematics, phasing, and timing of the slap shot. In the initial baseline session, the control subjects exhibited consistency of performance; however, even after 1,200 trials of supervised practice the performance of the two physically awkward children was extremely variable.

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Phillip D. Tomporowski and Larry D. Jameson

Institutionalized severely and profoundly mentally retarded adults participated in two exercise programs. One group of 19 subjects performed a circuit-training regimen consisting of treadmill walking, stationary bicycle riding, rowing, and calisthenics. Exercise sessions lasted 60 minutes and were performed every third day during an 18-week training period. A second group of 19 subjects participated in an 18-week jogging regimen which consisted of running distances of 1/2, 1, or 1 1/2 miles each session. The exercise requirements in both programs were increased progressively during the course of training. Subjects adapted quickly to both exercise regimens and almost all improved their physical endurance and ability to exercise. It is suggested that the highly motivating characteristics of exercise may provide educators with a training medium through which new skills can be taught to severely and profoundly mentally retarded adults.

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David Rhodes, Mark Leather, Daniel Birdsall and Jill Alexander

the positive training response elicited post a period of proprioceptive training consisting of 3 to 5 training sessions per week. The training periods within literature have varied between 4 to 8 weeks, and the current work observes a longer-term effect, post completion of the 8-week training period

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Diulian Muniz Medeiros, César Marchiori and Bruno Manfredini Baroni

with the other studies (4 66 and 6 wk 56 , 64 ). It is possible that the longer training period might have contributed to the higher increase in fascicle length observed by Bourne et al. 57 When this study was excluded from the meta-analysis, the heterogeneity was 0% (0.65; 95% CI, 0.09 to 1.20: I 2

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Álvaro Cuñado-González, Aitor Martín-Pintado-Zugasti and Ángel L. Rodríguez-Fernández

all injuries. Variables Personal data included the sociodemographic variables of age and gender and the anthropometric variables of weight and height. Sport variables included league; player court position; season period, including preseason (precompetitive training period), in season (regular season