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Albert J. Petitpas

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Brian Goff, Dennis P. Wilson, W. Currie Martin and Brandon Spurlock

Our study examines the impact of the transition from NCAA Football Championship Series (FCS) participation to Football Bowl Series (FBS) participation on demand for university football. The primary empirical analysis uses 23 schools that transitioned to the FBS between 1987 and 2013 to examine attendance effects. We first examine the change as a type of event study and estimate the impact in a short run “transition window” of the 5 years leading up to and after the transition. We then estimate the long run impact of membership on annual attendance over a period extending from 5 years before transition through 2013 for all transition schools. Finally, we estimate impact on an alternative sample that includes a control group of top performing FCS schools that have not transitioned to FBS. The results derived from these panel regressions indicate a substantial positive impact on per game attendance over the transition period and for many years beyond the transition. (JEL codes: L83, L29.)

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Brendan Smith, Stephanie Hanrahan, Ruth Anderson and Lyndel Abbott

Leaving home or transitioning to another environment is a part of every individual’s personal growth and is often considered to be a significant developmental milestone. The distress that individuals experience with this transition has been identified as homesickness. Elite sporting institutions, such as the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), have recognized that problems associated with homesickness appear to be a predominant cause of poor well-being and dropout among athletes living in a national sports institute. This study aimed to investigate if individual personality traits and coping styles could predict levels of homesickness in these athletes. Neuroticism, self-esteem, and mental escape were significant predictors of homesickness. These results suggest that athletes who are vulnerable to homesickness can be identified before the commencement of their sporting scholarships so they can be treated accordingly.

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Tom Mitchell, Adam Gledhill, Mark Nesti, Dave Richardson and Martin Littlewood

In English professional soccer, around 90% of youth players embarking on a professional career fail to achieve this status ( Anderson & Miller, 2011 ). Fundamentally, concerns in England centre on the small number of young players successfully making the youth-to-senior team transition. Talent

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Olivier Galy, Olivier Hue, Karim Chamari, Alain Boussana, Anis Chaouachi and Christian Préfaut


To study the relationship between performance and exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH), 5 internationally ranked (INT) and 8 regionally ranked (REG) triathletes performed cycle-run successions (CR) and control runs (R) in competitionlike conditions: at ≍75% VO2max.


Ventilatory parameters and oxyhemoglo-bin saturation (SpO2) data were collected continuously. Arteriolized partial pressure in O2 (PaO2) and alveolar ventilation (VA) were measured before and after cycling (CRcycle), the successive run (CRrun), and R. Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLco) was measured at rest and 10 minutes post-CR. Training and short-distance triathlon data were collected.


INT showed signifcantly greater experience than REG in competition years (P > .05), training regimen (P > .05), and swimming (P > .05), and cycling (P > .05) volumes; running showed a trend (P < .06). Cycling, running, and total triathlon performances were significantly higher in INT than REG (P > .01). SpO2 during CR dropped significantly more in INT than in REG. Both groups showed significant inverse correlations between the magnitude of the SpO2 change from CRcy-cle to CRrun and the triathlon running time (r = −0.784; P < .05 and r = −0.699; P < .05; respectively). When compared with CRcycle, PaO2 significantly decreased and VA significantly increased after CRrun and R in both groups (P < .01). DLco significantly dropped between pre- and postexercise in CR and R with no between-group difference (P < .05).


EIAH was aggravated in higher performers during simulated cycle-run segments, related to longer experience and heavier training regimens. Possibly, relative hypoventilation caused this aggravated EIAH in INT, although pulmonary diffusion limitation was observed in both groups. Beyond EIAH severity, the magnitude of SpO2 variations during the cycle-run transition may affect triathlon running performance.

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Jaclyn P. Maher and David E. Conroy

sedentary behavior. Furthermore, little evidence exists regarding relations between sit-to-stand transitions and other movement-related behaviors such as physical activity and sedentary time among older adults. Within-person changes to physical activity or sedentary behavior patterns can occur via

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Patrick H.F. Baillie and Steven J. Danish

Transition out of a career in sports has been suggested as being a difficult and disruptive process for many athletes. An early and enduring identification, familiarity, and preference for the role of athlete may cause its loss to be a significant stressor for the elite, Olympic, or professional athlete. The purpose of this paper is to describe the various aspects of the career transition process in sports, beginning with early identification with the role of athlete and continuing through retirement from active participation in competitive sports. Athletes are often poorly prepared for the off-time event of leaving sports, and traditional theories of retirement may not be suitable. People associated with athletes (coaches, peers, management, family members, and sport psychologists) and athletes themselves need to be aware of the potential for difficulty during their career transition.

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Dana A. Sinclair and Terry Orlick

The purpose of this study was to explore the transition experiences of high-performance athletes. More specifically, this study investigated reasons for retirement from sport, individual coping strategies, support networks used by transitional athletes, and other variables that may have impacted on the athlete’s adjustment process. Retired high-performance athletes (N = 199) with international competitive experience completed the Athlete Retirement Questionnaire, a 34-item instrument developed for this study. Analysis showed that those athletes who adjusted smoothly tended to retire after they achieved their sport related goals or because they had achieved their goals in sport. In addition, athletes who had a more difficult transition tended to feel incompetent outside of sport and to also feel that keeping busy was not an effective coping strategy. Practical implications are presented.

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Salih A. Salih, Nancye M. Peel, Di Enright and Wendy Marshall

older persons discharged from hospital to the community. The Transitional Care Program (TCP) is a slow rehabilitation, goal-oriented, time-limited, and community-based national program aiming to help older people on discharge from hospital to return home rather than prematurely enter residential care

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Veerle Segers, Peter Aerts, Matthieu Lenoir and Dirk De Clercq

The purpose of this study was to examine the kinetics of the walk-to-run transition (WRT) and run-to-walk transition (RWT), when accelerating or decelerating across transition speed (a = 0.17 m·s−2). Nine women performed gait transitions on a 50-m-long walkway. Vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) and the center of pressure (COP) were examined in the range from 3 steps before to 3 steps after transition in order to identify the possible occurrence of a transition process, in order to facilitate the actual realization of transition. The actual transition is realized in one step, during WRT and RWT. This transition step was characterized by an outlying vertical GRF and COP trajectory (deviating from walking and running). Despite this clear discontinuity, a transitional adaptation period (process) appeared in both transitions. In the WRT, transition was prepared and kinetic adaptations were found in the last step before transition. The RWT was pre- and “post”-pared and only completed during the first walking step after transition. Thus, the WRT and RWT are two distinct phenomena, with different kinetics.