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Bradley J. Cardinal, Hermann-J. Engels and Weimo Zhu

The Transtheoreticai Model of behavior change was applied to a sample of 669 preadolescents (M age = 8.2) to determine whether stages of exercise could be observed. Associations between stage of exercise classification and demographic, fitness, and cognitive variables were examined. Stage of exercise classifications, on the basis of the Children’s Stage of Exercise Algorithm, were as follows: maintenance (50.8%), action (36.5%), preparation (3.1%), contemplation (4.9%), and precontemplation (4.6%). Stage of exercise was significantly related to gender, age, and grade level. Controlling for these differences, the relationship between exercise beliefs and stage of exercise was significant.

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Ashley A. Hansen, Joanne E. Perry, John W. Lace, Zachary C. Merz, Taylor L. Montgomery and Michael J. Ross

. Therefore, consistent with the goal of grounding sport psychology practice in clinical psychology methodology, the current paper provides preliminary support for a new assessment measure that serves as a transtheoretical monitoring instrument for applied sport psychology practice and fills the present gap

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Maria Kosma, Rebecca Ellis Gardner, Bradley J. Cardinal, Jeremy J. Bauer and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

A high proportion of individuals with disabilities remain physically inactive. Therefore, this study (web-based survey) investigated the relationships between the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and physical activity among 224 adults with physical disabilities (M age = 45.4 years, SD = 10.78, females = 71%). Additionally, the most important TTM predictors of the stages of change and physical activity were examined. Standardized self-report scales of the TTM constructs and physical activity were completed. The study findings supported the theorized relationships between the TTM constructs and physical activity. The behavioral and cognitive processes of change distinguished the stages of change. These two constructs and self-efficacy mostly predicted physical activity (R 2 total = .18). The assessment methodology of the TTM constructs needs to be revisited.

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Beth A. Lewis, LeighAnn H. Forsyth, Bernardine M. Pinto, Beth C. Bock, Mary Roberts and Bess H. Marcus

Behavioral science theories have been used to develop physical activity interventions; however, little is known as to whether these interventions are effective due to changes in constructs related to these theories. Specifically, if the intervention is successful, does it work for the reasons hypothesized by the theory underlying it? The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of particular theoretical constructs among participants (n = 150) who had been randomly assigned to a physical activity intervention based on the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory (i.e., tailored group) or to a standard care group. Participants in the tailored group reported greater increases in behavioral processes and self-efficacy from baseline to 3 months than participants in the standard-care group. No between-group differences were found for cognitive processes and decisional balance. This study demonstrates that theory-based physical activity interventions may be effective through changes in particular theoretical constructs.

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Carolyn Rabin, Bernardine M. Pinto and Georita M. Frierson

Physical activity (PA) interventions diminish some of the physical and psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. To increase intervention efficacy and portability, it is necessary to determine the factors mediating intervention effects on physical and psychosocial outcomes. This study presents mediator analyses from a randomized controlled trial of a home-based PA intervention (focused primarily on brisk walking) for breast cancer survivors. Eighty-six survivors were randomized to PA or contact control groups (mean age = 53.42 years, SD = 9.08 and 52.86 years, SD = 10.38 respectively; mean time since diagnosis < 2 years). The PA intervention was based on the transtheoretical model (TTM). Kraemerʼs approach was used to test hypothesized mediators. TTM variables did not mediate intervention effects on PA. Data indicate that increases in moderate-intensity PA and improved fitness may mediate intervention effects on vigor (β = .21; p = .01) and fatigue (β = .24; p = .05) and suggest the value of future research on these potential mediators.

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William V. Massey, Stacy L. Gnacinski and Barbara B. Meyer

Research has demonstrated the efficacy of psychological skills training (PST), yet many athletes do not appear ready to do whatever it takes to improve the mental aspects of performance. Although the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM), generally, and readiness to change, specifically, have received considerable attention in a range of allied health fields, few studies have been conducted to examine this construct in applied sport psychology. The purpose of the current study was to examine National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes’ readiness for PST as it relates to their stage of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and use of processes of change. The data trends observed in the current study were consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of the TTM as well as previous research on NCAA Division I athletes. The results of the current study highlight the need to consider readiness to change when designing and implementing PST interventions.

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Stacy L. Gnacinski, William V. Massey, Courtney W. Hess, Mellanie M. Nai, Monna Arvinen-Barrow and Barbara B. Meyer

To enhance the specificity of psychological skills training (PST) interventions, the purpose of the current study was to examine stage of change and gender differences in the combination of transtheoretical model (TTM) constructs (i.e., decisional balance pros and cons, self-efficacy, cognitive and behavioral processes of change) among collegiate student-athletes. Participants (N = 602) completed all TTM measures, and a factorial multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of stage of change and gender on the combination of TTM constructs. No significant interaction effect was identified, yet significant main effects of stage of change and gender were identified. Post hoc tests revealed unique linear combinations of decisional balance, self-efficacy, and processes of change for each stage of change contrast. Taken together, study findings may be used to enhance the specificity of behavior change interventions when delivering PST programs to both male and female collegiate student-athletes.

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Gregg Bennett

The purpose of this study was to describe the participation styles of students enrolled in two basic instruction weight training classes. The students’ participation styles fell somewhere on a continuum between slackin’ and sweatin’. Through the use of class observations and interviews with the students and the instructors, six styles of participation were identified within both of these categories. Four participation styles were revealed in the slackin’ category. These were (a) socializers, (b) manipulators, (c) underachievers, and (d) minimalists. The two styles identified in the sweatin’ category were (a) sidekicks and (b) ex-athletes. The transtheoretical model for behavior modification was used to describe the students’ activity levels in the classes and predict exercise adherence among the twelve participants. Further in-depth studies are needed to assess the state of basic instruction program classes within individual programs and classes throughout the nation.

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Colleen M. Horn, Jenelle N. Gilbert, Wade Gilbert and Dawn K. Lewis

The present study examined a 10-week psychological skills training (PST) intervention called UNIFORM (Johnson & Gilbert, 2004) with a community college softball team. The intervention was based on the transtheoretical model (Prochaska & Marcus, 1994). Results showed that the athletes learned the skills, enjoyed the intervention, and significantly increased their application of relaxation and goal setting during practice and their application of relaxation, imagery, and self-talk during competition as measured by the Test of Performance Strategies (Thomas, Murphy, & Hardy, 1999). Though there were some positive changes, decisional balance and self-efficacy scores (DB-PST, SE-PST; Leffingwell, Rider, & Williams, 2001) were not statistically significant. The UNIFORM approach enabled community college athletes to learn psychological skills and apply them during practice, competition, and in their everyday lives.

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Akitomo Yasunaga, Yukari Kawano, Yumiko Kamahori and Kyoko Noguchi

Background:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between the level of exercise behavior and individual and environmental factors related to exercise behavior among female Japanese undergraduate students.

Methods:

The participants were 2482 female Japanese undergraduate students. Participants’ level of exercise behavior was measured by the stage of change to exercise in the transtheoretical model. Individual and environmental factors related to exercise behavior were assessed using body mass index, self-efficacy, social support, perceived positive and negative aspects of exercise, perceived neighborhood environment, attitude toward physical education lessons in childhood and puberty, and depression.

Results:

Scores for self-efficacy, social support, positive aspects of exercise, and perceived neighborhood environment were significantly higher among women who were more active compared with those who were inactive. On the other hand, scores for negative aspects of exercise and depression were greater among inactive women compared with those who were insufficiently active and/or active. In addition, past attitude toward exercise in primary school, junior high school, and high school was associated with current level of exercise behavior.

Conclusions:

This cross-sectional study confirmed that psychosocial and environmental factors were closely associated with level of exercise behavior among female Japanese undergraduate students.