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Beth A. Lewis, LeighAnn H. Forsyth, Bernardine M. Pinto, Beth C. Bock, Mary Roberts and Bess H. Marcus

Behavioral science theories have been used to develop physical activity interventions; however, little is known as to whether these interventions are effective due to changes in constructs related to these theories. Specifically, if the intervention is successful, does it work for the reasons hypothesized by the theory underlying it? The purpose of this study was to examine the importance of particular theoretical constructs among participants (n = 150) who had been randomly assigned to a physical activity intervention based on the Transtheoretical Model and Social Cognitive Theory (i.e., tailored group) or to a standard care group. Participants in the tailored group reported greater increases in behavioral processes and self-efficacy from baseline to 3 months than participants in the standard-care group. No between-group differences were found for cognitive processes and decisional balance. This study demonstrates that theory-based physical activity interventions may be effective through changes in particular theoretical constructs.

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Akitomo Yasunaga, Yukari Kawano, Yumiko Kamahori and Kyoko Noguchi

Background:

The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between the level of exercise behavior and individual and environmental factors related to exercise behavior among female Japanese undergraduate students.

Methods:

The participants were 2482 female Japanese undergraduate students. Participants’ level of exercise behavior was measured by the stage of change to exercise in the transtheoretical model. Individual and environmental factors related to exercise behavior were assessed using body mass index, self-efficacy, social support, perceived positive and negative aspects of exercise, perceived neighborhood environment, attitude toward physical education lessons in childhood and puberty, and depression.

Results:

Scores for self-efficacy, social support, positive aspects of exercise, and perceived neighborhood environment were significantly higher among women who were more active compared with those who were inactive. On the other hand, scores for negative aspects of exercise and depression were greater among inactive women compared with those who were insufficiently active and/or active. In addition, past attitude toward exercise in primary school, junior high school, and high school was associated with current level of exercise behavior.

Conclusions:

This cross-sectional study confirmed that psychosocial and environmental factors were closely associated with level of exercise behavior among female Japanese undergraduate students.

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Ilca M.S. Diniz, Maria de Fátima S. Duarte, Karen G. Peres, Elusa S.A. de Oliveira and Angélia Berndt

Objective:

The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on active commuting by bicycle.

Methods:

An intervention study with workers from a metallurgical industry in Santa Catarina state, Brazil was carried out in 2011. A total of 464 individuals were placed in the intervention group (IG) and 468 in the control group (CG). The intervention consisted of strategies based on the transtheoretical model and stages of behavior change. The intervention group took part in activities for 6 months, including 23 meetings. The statistical analysis included intergroup comparison (IG × CG) at baseline and after the intervention. Intragroup analysis was performed 6 months after the intervention. Student’s t-test, chi-square, and McNemar tests were used to analyze the data.

Results:

Of the original total, 876 individuals (94%) participated in the study. The proportion of participants that used bicycles to commute to work (IG) increased significantly from baseline (45.3%) to the final interventional period (47.5%). No difference was found between the CG and the IG group after the interventional period.

Conclusion:

We suggest taking these findings into consideration in further studies to understand better the role of educational intervention on active commuting by bicycle.

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Jeff David Breckon, Lynne Halley Johnston and Andrew Hutchison

Background:

Physical activity (PA) counseling is becoming commonplace in primary care settings, although there is a high degree of variation in the quality and quantity of this intervention. The purpose of this review was to examine the theory on which the intervention is based and the level of treatment fidelity applied at all stages of the intervention.

Methods:

A systematic review was carried out for interventions that reported an element of PA counseling. Results were mapped according to a treatment fidelity framework of intervention design, training, delivery, receipt, and enactment.

Results:

Most studies were underpinned by the transtheoretical model. Few studies described the frequency or duration of PA counseling training or competence level of the interventionist. The most common outcome measures were behavioral and physiological, with few studies including a cognitive outcome measure.

Conclusions:

Most research focuses on outcome and significance rather than intervention processes, with limited consideration of treatment fidelity. The design, training, delivery, and receipt of PA counseling should be reported more thoroughly.

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William V. Massey, Stacy L. Gnacinski and Barbara B. Meyer

Research has demonstrated the efficacy of psychological skills training (PST), yet many athletes do not appear ready to do whatever it takes to improve the mental aspects of performance. Although the transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM), generally, and readiness to change, specifically, have received considerable attention in a range of allied health fields, few studies have been conducted to examine this construct in applied sport psychology. The purpose of the current study was to examine National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes’ readiness for PST as it relates to their stage of change, decisional balance, self-efficacy, and use of processes of change. The data trends observed in the current study were consistent with the theoretical underpinnings of the TTM as well as previous research on NCAA Division I athletes. The results of the current study highlight the need to consider readiness to change when designing and implementing PST interventions.

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Maria Kosma, Rebecca Ellis Gardner, Bradley J. Cardinal, Jeremy J. Bauer and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

A high proportion of individuals with disabilities remain physically inactive. Therefore, this study (web-based survey) investigated the relationships between the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and physical activity among 224 adults with physical disabilities (M age = 45.4 years, SD = 10.78, females = 71%). Additionally, the most important TTM predictors of the stages of change and physical activity were examined. Standardized self-report scales of the TTM constructs and physical activity were completed. The study findings supported the theorized relationships between the TTM constructs and physical activity. The behavioral and cognitive processes of change distinguished the stages of change. These two constructs and self-efficacy mostly predicted physical activity (R 2 total = .18). The assessment methodology of the TTM constructs needs to be revisited.

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Frances Bevington, Katrina L. Piercy, Kate Olscamp, Sandra W. Hilfiker, Dena G. Fisher and Elizabeth Y. Barnett

care providers. The campaign is grounded in the transtheoretical model of behavior change and aims to impact the behavior of physical activity contemplators. 5 The transtheoretical model has been used as the foundation for interventions to promote healthy behaviors, such as smoking cessation, condom

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Ashleigh J. Sowle, Sarah L. Francis, Jennifer A. Margrett, Mack C. Shelley and Warren D. Franke

service for an underserved audience (i.e., rural-residing OA). Table 1 LIFE Program Overview Program Component Activities Whole Person Wellness Model Component Transtheoretical Model Stage(s) Onsite Program • 30-60 min of physical activity a twice weekly using Xbox Kinect ™ exergaming technology using

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Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Camila Tiome Baba, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Fornazieri, Natália Cerri, Daniele Frascá Martins Fernandes and Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

factors corroborate with the psychological theories of behavioral change, which talk about the complexity and multifactorial characteristic of an active lifestyle. 23 , 24 The transtheoretical model has been employed to understand a subject’s readiness for change in health risk behaviors. 23 According to

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Hannah Dorling, Jieg Blervacq and Yori Gidron

, United Kingdom. Measures Background Information This included participants’ gender, age, and their stage of exercise adoption, using the Stages of Exercise Adoption Scale. 28 This scale follows the transtheoretical model of health behavior change. 29 It uses a ladder where participants indicate the