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Kevin R. Heinsimer, Nicolas G. Nelson, Kristin J. Roberts and Lara B. McKenzie


The objective was to describe the patterns and mechanisms of water tubing–related injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments.


The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used to examine cases of water tubing–related injuries. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of water tubing–related injuries. Analyses were conducted in 2010.


From 1991−2009 an estimated 69,471 injuries were treated in US emergency departments for water tubing–related injuries. The annual number of cases increased 250% over the 19-year study period (P < .001). Sprains and strains accounted for the largest portion of injuries (27.2%). The head was the most frequently injured body part (27.5%). Children and adolescents ≤ 19 years were more likely to be injured by contact with another person (OR: 2.47; 95% CI = 1.61−3.80) and were more likely to sustain injuries to the head (OR: 2.61; 95% CI = 2.01−3.38) compared with adults. Adults ≥ 20 years, were more likely than individuals ≤ 19 years to sustain sprains and strains (OR: 2.11; 95% CI = 1.64−2.71) and were most commonly injured by impact with the water (54.6%).


Patterns of water tubing–related injuries differ for children and adults. Research is needed to determine how best to reduce these injuries.

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Michael C. Dahl, Dheera Ananthakrishnan, Gregg Nicandri, Jens R. Chapman and Randal P. Ching

Football, one of the country’s most popular team sports, is associated with the largest overall number of sports-related, catastrophic, cervical spine injuries in the United States (Mueller, 2007). Patient handling can be hindered by the protective sports equipment worn by the athlete. Improper stabilization of these patients can exacerbate neurologic injury. Because of the lack of consensus on the best method for equipment removal, a study was performed comparing three techniques: full body levitation, upper torso tilt, and log roll. These techniques were performed on an intact and lesioned cervical spine cadaveric model simulating conditions in the emergency department. The levitation technique was found to produce motion in the anterior and right lateral directions. The tilt technique resulted in motions in the posterior left lateral directions, and the log roll technique generated motions in the right lateral direction and had the largest amount of increased instability when comparing the intact and lesioned specimen. These findings suggest that each method of equipment removal displays unique weaknesses that the practitioner should take into account, possibly on a patient-by-patient basis.

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David A. Shearer, Stephen D. Mellalieu and Catherine R. Shearer

While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is most commonly associated with survivors of traumatic events (e.g., combat), PTSD can occur after any situation in which victims perceive that their life or safety is threatened. In sport, athletes often place themselves in dangerous situations and are also exposed to the same lifestyle dangers as the general population. The literature on PTSD among athletes is sparse, and consequently, it is possible that many (non-clinical) sport psychologists would fail to recognize the symptoms and may subsequently fail to refer the athlete to the appropriate professional for clinical assistance. In the following case study, we present an example of an athlete suffering from PTSD following a serious bicycle accident in which she sustained head and facial injuries. We briefly detail the nature of PTSD and discuss how sport psychology services can be implemented alongside a parallel clinical intervention program. Finally, we offer recommendations for practice when working with athletes with PTSD.

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Theresa L. Miyashita and Paul A. Ullucci

3182582fe7 8. Killam C , Cautin RL , Santucci AC . Assessing the enduring residual neuropsychological effects of head trauma in college athletes who participate in contact sports . Arch Clin Neuropsychol . 2005 ; 20 : 599 – 611 . PubMed ID: 15939185 doi:10.1016/j.acn.2005.02.001 15939185 10

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William V. Massey and Meredith A. Whitley

populations ( Bean, Fortier, Post, & Chima, 2014 ; Magee & Jeanes, 2013 ; Ravizza, 2012 ; Trejo, Attali, & Magee, 2017 ). In this paper, we detail the results of a study examining the sport participation of youth who have experienced complex and developmental trauma while being raised in under

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Renee Newcomer Appaneal, Frank M. Perna and Kevin T. Larkin

Features of posttraumatic distress have been associated with treatment noncompliance and delayed surgical recovery among general medical and trauma populations. Although cognitive-affective and behavioral features of posttraumatic distress have been demonstrated among adult and adolescent athletes with injuries, physiological responses associated with posttraumatic distress have not yet been examined in this population. The objective of this study was to examine psychophysiological stress reactivity to orthopedic trauma among male athletes who sustained a severe sport injury. Athletes with injuries (n= 7) and non-injured athlete controls (n= 5) completed self-report measures of psychological distress and were then shown injury video footage while heart rate and skin conductance measures were recorded. After exposure to orthopedic trauma-related video footage, athletes with injuries demonstrated significantly greater skin conductance reactivity and subjective distress compared to controls. As demonstrated among other medical and trauma populations, athletes with injuries exhibit exaggerated stress reactivity profiles when primed with orthopedic trauma stimuli.

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Kelsey M. Rynkiewicz, Lauren A. Fry and Lindsay J. DiStefano

posterior) symptoms will relate to the neurovascular and muscular structures in the area. 1 Differential diagnoses for patients exhibiting leg pain without acute trauma include CECS, medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, tendonitis/myositis, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, sickle cell

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Lydia R. Vollavanh, Kathleen M. O’Day, Elizabeth M. Koehling, James M. May, Katherine M. Breedlove, Evan L. Breedlove, Eric A. Nauman, Debbie A. Bradney, J. Eric Goff and Thomas G. Bowman

prevent head injuries. Describing head impacts is vital to understanding and preventing head trauma in sport. Researchers have examined the biomechanical characteristics of head impacts in soccer, 13 ice hockey, 4 , 14 , 15 and football. 16 – 24 Previous studies found differences in linear and

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Steven H. Doeven, Michel S. Brink, Barbara C.H. Huijgen, Johan de Jong and Koen A.P.M. Lemmink

week) within the study. Next to daily training and match load, well-being, TQR, NMP, and injuries and illnesses were measured. Figure 1 Overview and time points of measurements during ≥2-match weeks in the study. CMJ indicates countermovement jump; M1, match 1; M2, match 2; OSTRC, Oslo Sports Trauma

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Katie J. Lyman, Michael McCrone, Thomas A. Hanson, Christopher D. Mellinger and Kara Gange

normal and swollen ankles . Arch Orthop Trauma Surg . 2006 ; 126 : 668 – 673 . PubMed ID: 16832667 doi:10.1007/s00402-006-0189-3 10.1007/s00402-006-0189-3 16832667 21. Weresh MJ , Bennett GL , Njus G . Analysis of cryotherapy penetration: a comparison of the plaster cast, synthetic cast, ace